I dedicate this dictionary to my parents George and Marion Greenwald and my friends Orville and Evelyn Brynelson. I especially thank James Steckel, Barbara




НазваниеI dedicate this dictionary to my parents George and Marion Greenwald and my friends Orville and Evelyn Brynelson. I especially thank James Steckel, Barbara
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Dedication: 3/15/05


I dedicate this dictionary to my parents George and Marion Greenwald and my friends Orville and Evelyn Brynelson. I especially thank James Steckel, Barbara Zbikowski, Gustavo Betancourt, and Joshua Ellis, colleagues and computer experts extraordinaire, for their invaluable assistance. Kathy Hart and Ann O'Hara, , MUHS librarians, were most helpful in suggesting sources. I further thank Gaylan DuBose, Ed Long, Laura Long, Thomas Reed, Hugh Himwich, Susan Schearer, Gardy Warren, and Kaye Warren for their encouragement and advice. Mrs. Schearer proofed the entire dictionary! My former students and now Classics professors Daniel Curley and Anthony Hollingsworth also deserve mention for their advice, assistance, and friendship. My student Michael Kocorowski encouraged and provoked me into beginning this dictionary. Certamen players Michael Fleisch, James Ruel, Jeff Tudor, and Ryan Thom were inspirations. James Radtke, James Beaudoin, Richard Hallberg, Sylvester Kreilein, and James Wilkinson assisted with words from modern foreign languages. Without the advice of these and many others this dictionary could not have been compiled. Lastly I thank all my colleagues and students at Marquette University High School who have made my teaching career a joy.


Basic sources:

American College Dictionary (ACD)

American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD)

Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (ODEE)

Oxford English Dictionary (OCD)

Webster’s International Dictionary (eds. 2, 3) (W2, W3)

Liddell and Scott (LS)

Lewis and Short (LS)

Oxford Latin Dictionary (OLD)

Schaffer: Greek Derivative Dictionary, Latin Derivative Dictionary


In addition many other sources were consulted; numerous etymology texts and readers were helpful. Zeno’s Word Frequency guide assisted in determining the relative importance of words. However, all judgments (and errors) are finally mine. Many internet sites added variety. Vobis multas gratias.


James Greenwald


Copyright: 2002, 2005


A



ab: from

a-, ab-, abs-, advance, advanced, advancement, advantage, advantageous, advantageously, avant-garde, disadvantage, disadvantageous, disadvantageously, readvance, van, vanguard, vantage

Examples: avert, abduct, abstain (and numerous others).

Distinguish Greek prefix a- (the alpha privative meaning not or without);

e.g, amoral, atypical.

N.B. This prefix is NOT listed separately in the Reverse Index.


abbatia: abbey 8A abbacy, abbe, abbess, abbey, abbot


abdomen: belly 9C

abdomen, abdominal, abs


aboleo, abolitum: destroy 7F

abolish, abolition, abolitionary, abolitionism, abolitionist


accipiter: hawk 14D

accipiter


acer: sharp; aceo: be sour; acerbus: bitter; acies: battle-line; acuo: sharpen; acutus: sharp 5G

acerb, acerbic, acerbity, acetate, acetic, acetone, acetyl, acetylene, acid, acidic, acidification, acidify, acidity, acidly, acidosis, acidulous, aciduously, acrid, acridity, acrimonious, acrimoniously, acrimony, acrylic, acuity, acumen, acuminate, acumination, acupuncture, acute, acutely, acuteness, acutifoliate, aiguille, antacid, cute, cutely, cuteness, cutesy, cutie, diacetate, diacid, DNA, eager, eagerly, eagerness, eglantine, exacerbate, exacerbation, hyperacidity, niacin, overager, oxyacetylene, vinaigrette, vinegar, vinegarroon, vinegary


-acius: tending to

perspicacious etc. (= Eng. -acious)


-acitas: quality of being inclined to

prespicacity etc. (= Eng. -acity)


-acia: quality of having

obstinacy etc. (= Eng. -acy)


ad: to

ad-, adapt, accept, addition, adept, affect, aggressive, adhere, adit, adjacent, allege, admit, ammunition, announce, adopt, apply, acquire, arrive, assume, attend, adumbrate, advent etc.

Note assimilation: ad + munio becomes ammuntion.

Despite their appearance advance and advantage are not compounds of ad, but rather are a combination of ab and ante (q.v.).

N.B. This prefix is NOT listed separately in the Reverse Index.

N.B. dos-a-dos from French.


adeps: fat 14A

adipose


adulescens (youth): see alo


adulor (1): fawn upon 12B

adulate, adulation, adulatory


aedes (aedis): temple, building; aedificium: building 10D

aedile, edification, edifice, edify, unedifying


aeger: sick 14D

aegrotat


Aegyptus: Egypt: see AiguptoV


Aemilia: Aemilia 10B

Emil, Emily


aemulus: rival 10A

emulate, emulation, emulator, emulous

See also imitor, which may be related.


aequus: level, fair, just; aequo: equal; aequor: sea; iniquus: unjust 2E

adequacy, adequate, adequately, disequilibrium, Ecuador, Equadorian, egalitarian, egalitarianism, equable, equably, equal, equality, equalization, equalize, equalizer, equally, equanimity, equant, equatable, equate, equation, equator, equatorial, equiangular, equidistant, equilateral, equilibrate, equilibrium, equilize, equinoctial, equinomial, equinominal, equinox, equipartition, equipotent, equipotential, equitable, equitably, equity, equivalence, equivalency, equivalent, equivalently, equivocal, equivocate, equivocation, inadequacy, inadequate, inadequately, inequality, inequitable, inequitably, inequity, iniquitous, iniquity, unequal, unequally, unequivocal, unequivocally




aestimo (1): estimate; aes: bronze (LS; OLD doubts); aeneus: brazen; aerarium: treasury 4D

aenarian, aim, aimless, aimlessly, era, esteem, estimable, estimate, estimation, estimator, inestimable, overestimate, underestimate, underestimated, unestimation

Italicized words directly from aes.


aestas: summer; aestus: tide 10A

estivate, estuarine, estuary


aether: upper air: see aiqhr


aevum: age, generation; aetas: age; aeternus: everlasting 3B

age, ageism, ageless, agelong, coeval, eternal, eternalize, eternally, eternity, longevity, medieval, medievalism, medievalist, primeval, sempiternal, teenage, teenager, underaged

ODEE adds tarnation (see damno).


Afer: African; Africa: Africa 5E

Africa, African, Afrikaaner, Afrikaans, afro, Afro-, Afrocentric, Afrocentrism


ager: field; agrestis: rural (cf. agroV) 5E

acre, acreage, agrarian, agrarianism, agribusiness, agricultural, agriculturalist, agriculture, agriculturist, peregrination, peregrine, pilgrim, pilgrimage, wiseacre

See notes on aerie in OED and W3.


agger (rampart): see gero


ago, actus: do, drive (cf. Grk agw: lead, bring), adigo: throw; agito: drive; agmen: line of march; cogito: think; cogo: compel; exigo: drive out; exiguus: small; redigo: drive back -1B

act, actable, action, actionable, activation, activate, activator, active, actively, activism, activist, activity, actor, actress, actual, actuality, actually, actuarily, actuary, actuate, agency, agenda, agent, agile, agility, agitate, agitatedly, agitation, agitato (It), agitator, Agit-Prop, ambagious, ambiguity, ambiguous, ambiguously, anticoagulant, assay, cache, cachet, CIA, circumnavigate, circumnavigation, circumnavigator, coagulant, coagulate, coagulation, coagulative, coagulator, coagulin, coagulometer, coagulum, cogency, cogent, cogently, cogitable, cogitabund, cogitate, cogitation, cogito ergo sum, counteract, counteraction, counteractive, counteragent, crossexamine, crossexamination, disambiguate, disambiguation, enact, enaction, enactment, EPA, essay, essayist, exact, exacter, exactingly, exaction, exactitude, exactly, exactness, exam, examen, examinable, examination, examine, examiner, exigency, exigent, exiguous, expurgate, expurgation, fumigate, fumigation, -gate (for some words), hyper, hyperactive, hyperactivity, immunoassay, inaction, inactivate, inactivator, inactive, inactivity, inexact, inexactitude, inexactly, interact, interaction, interactionism, interactive, interactively, interactivity, interagency, intransigent, litigant, litigate, litigation, litigious, litigiously, litigiousness, mitigate, mitigation, mitigative, mucilage (OED), navigability, navigable, navigate, navigation, navigational, navigator, navvy, nonactivity, nonradioactive, nonreactive, objurgate, objurgation, overactive, overreact, overreaction, photocoagulation, proactive, procoagulant, prodigal,,prodigality, prodigally, psychoactive, purgation, purgative, purgatorial, purgatory, purge, radioactive, radioactivity, react, reactance, reactant, reaction, reactionary, reactivate, reactive, reactor, reagent, redaction, reenact, reenactment, reexamination, reexamine, retroactive, retroactively, squat, squatter, transact, transaction, transactional, transactor, unambiguous, unambiguously, unexamined, unexpurgated, unpurged, unreactive, variegate, variegation, virago,

ODEE adds cache, cachet. W3 accepts cache, hesitates on cachet. OLD says virago from vir + ago; LS says virgo. ODEE and OED derive virago from vir alone.

LS, OLD divide purgo into purus + ago. See purgo. Italicized words are from purgo.

For double underlined words see aio.


aio: say 9E

adage, prodigal, prodigality, prodigally, prodigious, prodigiously, prodigy

OLD says prodigalis, prodigium from either ago or aio. ODEE assigns prodigal to ago and prodigious to either ago or aio. OED assigns prodigal to ago and prodigious to aio.

W3 assigns prodigious and prodigy to aio, prodigal to ago.

ala: wing; ales: winged 9E

aileron, aisle, alar, axil, axillary


alacer: brisk 12B

alacrity, allegretto (It), allegro (It)

Albis: Elbe 12H

Elbe


albus: white 7A

alb, alba, Alban, Albania, Albanian, albarium, albedo, albescent, albifrons, albinism, albino, Albion, album, albumen, albumin, auburn, bedaub, daub

alea: dice: seehleoV


algeo: be cold 5E

algae, algid, algometer, algor, macroalgae, microalgae


-alis: pertaining to

general, genial, manual etc. (= Eng. -al, -eal, -ial)


alius: another; alienus: foreign; aliquis: someone; aliter: elsewhere 7C

alias, alibi, alien, alienable, alienage, alienate, alienation, alienator, alienism, alienist, aliquant, aliquot, et al., et alia, et alii, hidalgo, inalienable, unalienable


alo, al(i)tum: nourish; altus: high, deep; adulescens: youth; alma: nourishing 7C

adolescence, adolescent, adult, adulthood, aliment, alimentary, alimentation, alimentative, alimony, Alma, alma mater, altazimuth, altimeter, altimetry, altiplanation, altiplano, altitude, alto, altocumulus, altostratus, altricial, alum (alumnus), alumna, alumnus, bio-enhanced, coalesce, coalescence, coalescent, coalition, contralto, enhance, enhancement, exalt, exaltation, haughtily, haughtiness, haughty, haut (Fr), hauteur, hawser, nonproliferation, oboe, oboist, palimony, preadolescent, preadult, prole, proletarian, proletatianization, proletariat, proliferate, proliferation, proliferative

OED derives altar from alo; see note under oleo.


Alpes: Alps 9B

Alpine, Alps


altaria (altar): see oleo.


alter: one or the other of two; adulter: illicit lover; alternus: by turns 5C

adulter, adulterant, adulterate, adulteration, adulterer, adulteress, adulterine, adulterous, adultery, alter, alter ego, alterability, alterable, alteration, altercation, alternate, alternately, alternation, alternative, alternatively, alternativity, alternator, altrigenderism, altruism, altruist, altruistic, altruistically, inalterable, subaltern, unadulterated, unalterable, unalterably, unaltered


altus (high, deep): see alo.


alumen: astringent substance 8B

alum (substance), aluminiferous, aluminum, sial


alveus: bathtub 11J

alveary, alveolar, alveolate, alveolus


amarus: bitter 14A

maraschino

ambo: both (cf. amfi) 6D

ambagious, ambi-, ambiance, ambidexterity, ambidextrous, ambience, ambient, ambiguity, ambiguous, ambiguously, ambilateral, ambit, ambition, ambitious, ambitiously, ambivalence, ambivalent, ambivalently, disambiguate, disambiguation, overambitious, unambiguous, unambiguously, unambitious,

Note the changed spelling in anfractuous.


ambulo (1): walk 7C

alley, alleyway, amble, ambulance, ambulant, ambulate, ambulation, ambulator, ambulatory, andante, circumambulate, perambulate, perambulation, perambulator, permabulatory, pram, preamble, somnambulant, somnambulism


amita: (paternal) aunt 5I

aunt, auntie, aunty, great-aunt


amnis: river 13B

amnicolidae


amo (1): love; amicus: friend(ly); amicitia: friendship; amoenus: pleasant; inimicus: enemy 5I

Amanda, amateur, amateurish, amateurishly, amateurism, amative, amatory, amenity, ami (Fr), amiability, amiable, amiably, amicable, amicably, amicus, amiga (Sp), amigo (Sp), amity, amoretto (It), amorous, amorously, amour, Amy, enamor, enemy, enmity, inamorata (It), inimical, Mabel, paramour, pro-am


amplus: large 7C

ample, amplification, amplifier, amplify, amplitude, amply, laser, unamplified

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