1 1The publications listed below form a part of this specification to the extent referenced. The publications are referred to in the text by the basic

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SECTION 23 23 00




1.1.1The publications listed below form a part of this specification to the extent referenced. The publications are referred to in the text by the basic designation only. Unless other wise noted, the latest published version and/or revision shall be used. AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE (ARI)

a.ARI 710 Standard for Performance Rating of Liquid-Line Driers

b.ARI 720 Refrigerant Access Valves and Hose Connectors

c.ARI 750 Thermostatic Refrigerant Expansion Valves


a.ASHRAE 15 Safety Code for Refrigeration

b.ASHRAE 17 Method of Testing Capacity of Thermostatic Refrigerant Expansion Valves WELDING SOCIETY (AWS)

a.AWS A5.8/A5.8M Specification for Filler Metals for Brazing and Braze Welding

b.AWS BRH Brazing Handbook

c.AWS Z49.1 Safety in Welding, Cutting and Allied Processes INTERNATIONAL (ASME)

a.ASME B16.21 Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges

b.ASME B16.22 Standard for Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings

c.ASME B16.26 Standard for Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes

d.ASME B31.1 Power Piping

e.ASME B31.5 Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components

f.ASME B40.100 Pressure Gauges and Gauge Attachments

g.ASME BPVC SEC IX Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code; Section IX, Welding and Brazing Qualifications INTERNATIONAL (ASTM)

a.ASTM A 653 Standard Specification for Steel Sheet, Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) or Zinc-Iron Alloy-Coated (Galvannealed) by the Hot-Dip Process

b.ASTM B 117 Standing Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus

c.ASTM B 280 Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Tube for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Field Service

d.ASTM B 32 Standard Specification for Solder Metal

e.ASTM B 62 Standard Specification for Composition Bronze or Ounce Metal Castings

f.ASTM B 75 Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Tube

g.ASTM B 813 Standard Specification for Liquid and Paste Fluxes for Soldering of Copper and Copper Alloy Tube

h.ASTM D 3308 PTFE Resin Skived Tape

i.ASTM D 520 Zinc Dust Pigment

j.ASTM E 84 Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials STANDARDIZATION SOCIETY OF THE VALVE AND FITTINGS INDUSTRY (MSS)

a.MSS SP-58 Standard for Pipe Hangers and Supports - Materials, Design and Manufacture

b.MSS SP-69 Standard for Pipe Hangers and Supports - Selection and Application


1.2.1Government approval may be required on any of the following items. Items requiring submittals will be listed on the AF Form 66. Provide copies of all submittals per the requirements in Section 01 33 00, Submittal Procedures, or as listed on the AF Form 66 Shop Drawings

Refrigerant Piping System

Drawings provided in adequate detail to demonstrate compliance with contract requirements. Drawings shall consist of:

a.Piping layouts which identify all valves and fittings.

b.Plans and elevations which identify clearances required for maintenance and operation. Product Data

a.Refrigerant Piping System

(1)Manufacturer's standard catalog data highlighted to show material, size, options, performance charts and curves, etc. in adequate detail to demonstrate compliance with contract requirements. Data shall include manufacturer's recommended installation instructions and procedures. Data shall be provided for the following components as a minimum:

(a)Piping and Fittings


(c)Piping Accessories

(d)Pipe Hangers, Inserts, and Supports


(1)Three copies of qualified procedures, and list of names and identification symbols of qualified welders and welding operators, prior to non-factory welding operations.

c.Refrigerant Piping Tests

(1)A schedule, at least one week prior to the start of related testing, for each test. The schedules shall identify the proposed date, time, and location for each test.


(1)A schedule, at least one week prior to the date of the proposed training course, which identifies the date, time, and location for the training. Test Reports

a.Refrigerant Piping Tests

(1)Three copies of the report shall be provided in bound 8 1/2 by 11 inch booklets. Reports shall document all phases of the tests performed. The report shall include initial test summaries, all repairs/adjustments made, and the final test results. Operation and Maintenance Data


b.Operation and Maintenance Manuals

(1)Complete copies of an operation manual in bound 8 1/2 by 11 inch booklets listing step-by-step procedures required for system startup, operation, abnormal shutdown, emergency shutdown, and normal shutdown at least one week prior to the first training course. The booklets shall include the manufacturer's name, model number, and parts list. The manuals shall include the manufacturer's name, model number, service manual, and a brief description of all equipment and their basic operating features.

(2)Complete copies of maintenance manual in bound 8 1/2 x 11 inch booklets listing routine maintenance procedures, possible breakdowns and repairs, and a trouble shooting guide. The manuals shall include piping layouts and simplified wiring and control diagrams of the system as installed.


1.3.1Piping shall be welded in accordance with the qualified procedures using performance qualified welders and welding operators. Procedures and welders shall be qualified in accordance with ASME BPVC SEC IX. Welding procedures qualified by others, and welders and welding operators qualified by another employer may be accepted as permitted by ASME B31.1. The Contracting Officer shall be notified 24 hours in advance of tests and the tests shall be performed at the work site if practical. The welder or welding operator shall apply the personally assigned symbol near each weld made, as a permanent record. Structural members shall be welded in accordance with Section 05 05 23 Welding, Structural.


1.4.1Exposed moving parts, parts that produce high operating temperature, parts which may be electrically energized, and parts that may be a hazard to operating personnel shall be insulated, fully enclosed, guarded, or fitted with other types of safety devices. Safety devices shall be installed so that proper operation of equipment is not impaired. Welding and cutting safety requirements shall be in accordance with AWS Z49.1.


1.5.1Stored items shall be protected from the weather, humidity and temperature variations, dirt and dust, or other contaminants. Proper protection and care of all material both before and during installation shall be the Contractor's responsibility. Any materials found to be damaged shall be replaced at the Contractor's expense. During installation, piping and similar openings shall be capped to keep out dirt and other foreign matter.


1.6.1Verification of Dimensions Contractor shall become familiar with all details of the work, verify all dimensions in the field, and advise the Contracting Officer of any discrepancy before performing any work.

1.6.2Contract Drawings of the small scale of the drawings, it is not possible to indicate all offsets, fittings, and accessories that may be required. The Contractor shall carefully investigate the plumbing, fire protection, electrical, structural and finish conditions that would affect the work to be performed and shall arrange such work accordingly, furnishing required offsets, fittings, and accessories to meet such conditions.

1.6.3Spare Parts Contractor shall submit spare parts data for each different item of equipment specified, after approval of detail drawings and not later than two months prior to the date of beneficial occupancy. The data shall include a complete list of parts and supplies, with current unit prices and source of supply, a recommended spare parts list for 1 year of operation, and a list of the parts recommended by the manufacturer to be replaced on a routine basis.


1.7.1Operation and maintenance data shall comply with the requirements of Section 01 78 23 Operation and Maintenance Data and as specified herein.



1.8.1Materials and equipment shall be standard products of a manufacturer regularly engaged in the manufacturing of such products, which are of a similar material, design and workmanship. The standard products shall have been in satisfactory commercial or industrial use for 2 years prior to bid opening. The 2 year use shall include applications of equipment and materials under similar circumstances and of similar size. The 2 years experience shall be satisfactorily completed by a product which has been sold or is offered for sale on the commercial market through advertisements, manufacturer's catalogs, or brochures. Products having less than a 2 year field service record shall be acceptable if a certified record of satisfactory field operation, for not less than 6000 hours exclusive of the manufacturer's factory tests, can be shown. Products shall be supported by a service organization. System components shall be environmentally suitable for the indicated locations.


1.9.1Electrical equipment and wiring shall be in accordance with Section 26 20 00 Interior Distribution System. Field wiring shall be in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. Manual or automatic control and protective or signal devices required for the operation specified and any control wiring required for controls and devices specified, but not shown, shall be provided.


1.10.1Refrigerant piping, valves, fittings, and accessories shall be in accordance with ASHRAE 15 and ASME B31.5, except as specified herein. Refrigerant piping, valves, fittings, and accessories shall be compatible with the fluids used and capable of withstanding the pressures and temperatures of the service. Refrigerant piping, valves, and accessories used for refrigerant service shall be cleaned, dehydrated, and sealed (capped or plugged) prior to shipment from the manufacturer's plant.


1.11.1Copper Tubing tubing shall conform to ASTM B 280 annealed or hard drawn as required. Copper tubing shall be soft annealed where bending is required and hard drawn where no bending is required. Soft annealed copper tubing shall not be used in sizes larger than 1-3/8 inches. Joints shall be brazed except that joints on lines 7/8 inch and smaller may be flared. Cast copper alloy fittings for flared copper tube shall conform to ASME B16.26 and ASTM B 62. Wrought copper and bronze solder-joint pressure fittings shall conform to ASME B16.22 and ASTM B 75. Joints and fittings for brazed joint shall be wrought-copper or forged-brass sweat fittings. Cast sweat-type joints and fittings shall not be allowed for brazed joints. Brass or bronze adapters for brazed tubing may be used for connecting tubing to flanges and to threaded ends of valves and equipment.

1.11.2Solder shall conform to ASTM B 32, grade Sb5, tin-antimony alloy for service pressures up to 150 psig. Solder flux shall be liquid or paste form, non-corrosive and conform to ASTM B 813.

1.11.3Brazing Filler Metal metal shall conform to AWS A5.8, Type BAg-5 with AWS Type 3 flux, except Type BCuP-5 or BCuP-6 may be used for brazing copper-to-copper joints.


Valves shall be designed, manufactured, and tested specifically for refrigerant service. Valve bodies shall be of brass, bronze, steel, or ductile iron construction. Valves 1 inch and smaller shall have brazed or socket welded connections. Valves larger than 1 inch shall have butt welded end connections. Threaded end connections shall not be used, except in pilot pressure or gauge lines where maintenance disassembly is required and welded flanges cannot be used. Internal parts shall be removable for inspection or replacement without applying heat or breaking pipe connections. Valve stems exposed to the atmosphere shall be stainless steel or corrosion resistant metal plated carbon steel. Direction of flow shall be legibly and permanently indicated on the valve body. Control valve inlets shall be fitted with integral or adapted strainer or filter where recommended or required by the manufacturer. Purge, charge and receiver valves shall be of manufacturer's standard configuration.

1.12.1Refrigerant Stop Valves shall be the globe or full-port ball type with a back-seating stem especially packed for refrigerant service. Valve packing shall be replaceable under line pressure. Valve shall be provided with a wrench operator and a seal cap. Valve shall be the straight or angle pattern design as indicated.

1.12.2Check Valves shall be the swing or lift type as required to provide positive shutoff at the differential pressure indicated. Valve shall be provided with resilient seat.

1.12.3Liquid Solenoid Valves shall comply with ARI 760 and be suitable for continuous duty with applied voltages 15 percent under and 5 percent over nominal rated voltage at maximum and minimum encountered pressure and temperature service conditions. Valves shall be direct-acting or pilot-operating type, packless, except that packed stem, seal capped, manual lifting provisions shall be furnished. Solenoid coils shall be moisture-proof, UL approved, totally encapsulated or encapsulated and metal jacketed as required. Valves shall have safe working pressure of 400 psi and a maximum operating pressure differential of at least 200 psi at 85 percent rated voltage. Valves shall have an operating pressure differential suitable for the refrigerant used.

1.12.4Expansion Valves shall conform to ARI 750 and ASHRAE 17. Valve shall be the diaphragm and spring-loaded type with internal or external equalizers, and bulb and capillary tubing. Valve shall be provided with an external superheat adjustment along with a seal cap. Internal equalizers may be utilized where flowing refrigerant pressure drop between outlet of the valve and inlet to the evaporator coil is negligible and pressure drop across the evaporator is less than the pressure difference corresponding to 2 degrees F of saturated suction temperature at evaporator conditions. Bulb charge shall be determined by the manufacturer for the application and such that liquid will remain in the bulb at all operating conditions. Gas limited liquid charged valves and other valve devices for limiting evaporator pressure shall not be used without a distributor or discharge tube or effective means to prevent loss of control when bulb becomes warmer than valve body. Pilot-operated valves shall have a characterized plug to provide required modulating control. A de-energized solenoid valve may be used in the pilot line to close the main valve in lieu of a solenoid valve in the main liquid line. An isolatable pressure gauge shall be provided in the pilot line, at the main valve. Automatic pressure reducing or constant pressure regulating expansion valves may be used only where indicted or for constant evaporator loads.

1.12.5Safety Relief Valves shall be the two-way type, unless indicated otherwise. Valve shall bear the ASME code symbol. Valve capacity shall be certified by the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors. Valve shall be of an automatically reseating design after activation.

1.12.6Refrigerant Access Valves access valves and hose connections shall be in accordance with ARI 720.


1.13.1Filter Driers shall conform to ARI 710. Sizes 5/8 inch and larger shall be the full flow, replaceable core type. Sizes 1/2 inch and smaller shall be the sealed type. Cores shall be of suitable desiccant that will not plug, cake, dust, channel, or break down, and shall remove water, acid, and foreign material from the refrigerant. Filter driers shall be constructed so that none of the desiccant will pass into the refrigerant lines. Minimum bursting pressure shall be 1,500 psi.

1.13.2Sight Glass and Liquid Level Indicator and Components

a.Assembly shall be pressure- and temperature-rated and constructed of materials suitable for the service. Glass shall be borosilicate type. Ferrous components subject to condensation shall be electro-galvanized.'s-Eye and Inline Sight Glass Reflex Lens

a.Bull's-eye and inline sight glass reflex lens shall be provided for dead-end liquid service. For pipe line mounting, two plain lenses in one body suitable for backlighted viewing shall be provided. Indicator

a.Indicator shall be a self-reversible action, moisture reactive, color changing media. Indicator shall be furnished with full-color-printing tag containing color, moisture and temperature criteria. Unless otherwise indicated, the moisture indicator shall be an integral part of each corresponding sight glass.

1.13.3Pipe Hangers, Inserts, and Supports hangers, inserts, guides, and supports shall conform to MSS SP-58 and MSS SP-69.

1.13.4Escutcheons shall be chromium-plated iron or chromium-plated brass, either one piece or split pattern, held in place by internal spring tension or set screws.


1.14.1Factory Coating otherwise specified, equipment and component items, when fabricated from ferrous metal, shall be factory finished with the manufacturer's standard finish, except that items located outside of buildings shall have weather resistant finishes that will withstand 500 hours exposure to the salt spray test specified in ASTM B 117 using a 5 percent sodium chloride solution. Immediately after completion of the test, the specimen shall show no signs of blistering, wrinkling, cracking, or loss of adhesion and no sign of rust creepage beyond 1/8 inch on either side of the scratch mark. Cut edges of galvanized surfaces where hot-dip galvanized sheet steel is used shall be coated with a zinc-rich coating conforming to ASTM D 520, Type I.

1.14.2Factory Applied Insulation suction lines between the cooler and each compressor and cold gas inlet connections to gas cooled motors. Refrigerant pumps and exposed chilled water lines on absorption chillers shall be insulated with not less than 3/4 inch thick unicellular plastic foam. Factory insulated items installed outdoors are not required to be fire-rated. As a minimum, factory insulated items installed indoors shall have a flame spread index no higher than 75 and a smoke developed index no higher than 150. Factory insulated items (no jacket) installed indoors and which are located in air plenums, in ceiling spaces, and in attic spaces shall have a flame spread index no higher than 25 and a smoke developed index no higher than 50. Flame spread and smoke developed indexes shall be determined by ASTM E 84. Insulation shall be tested in the same density and installed thickness as the material to be used in the actual construction. Material supplied by a manufacturer with a jacket shall be tested as a composite material. Jackets, facings, and adhesives shall have a flame spread index no higher than 25 and a smoke developed index no higher than 50 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.


1.15.1Field applied insulation shall be provided and installed in accordance with Section 23 07 00 Thermal Insulation for Mechanical Systems.



Pipe and fitting installation shall conform to the requirements of ASME B31.1. Pipe shall be cut accurately to measurements established at the jobsite, and worked into place without springing or forcing, completely clearing all windows, doors, and other openings. Cutting or other weakening of the building structure to facilitate piping installation will not be permitted without written approval. Pipe or tubing shall be cut square, shall have burrs removed by reaming, and shall permit free expansion and contraction without causing damage to the building structure, pipe, joints, or hangers.

1.16.1Directional Changes in direction shall be made with fittings, except that bending of pipe 4 inches and smaller will be permitted, provided a pipe bender is used and wide weep bends are formed. Mitering or notching pipe or other similar construction to form elbows or tees will not be permitted. The centerline radius of bends shall not be less than 6 diameters of the pipe. Bent pipe showing kinks, wrinkles, flattening, or other malformations will not be accepted.

1.16.2Functional Requirements shall be installed 1/2 inch/10 feet of pipe in the direction of flow to ensure adequate oil drainage. Open ends of refrigerant lines or equipment shall be properly capped or plugged during installation to keep moisture, dirt, or other foreign material out of the system. Piping shall remain capped until installation. Equipment piping shall be in accordance with the equipment manufacturer's recommendations and the contract drawings. Equipment and piping arrangements shall fit into space allotted and allow adequate acceptable clearances for installation, replacement, entry, servicing, and maintenance.

1.16.3Fittings and End Connections Connections

a.Threaded connections shall be made with tapered threads and made tight with PTFE tape complying with ASTM D 3308 or equivalent thread-joint compound applied to the male threads only. Not more than three threads shall show after the joint is made. Connections

a.Brazing shall be performed in accordance with AWS BRH, except as modified herein. During brazing, the pipe and fittings shall be filled with a pressure regulated inert gas, such as nitrogen, to prevent the formation of scale. Before brazing copper joints, both the outside of the tube and the inside of the fitting shall be cleaned with a wire fitting brush until the entire joint surface is bright and clean. Brazing flux shall not be used. Surplus brazing material shall be removed at all joints. Steel tubing joints shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Joints in steel tubing shall be painted with the same material as the baked-on coating within 8 hours after joints are made. Tubing shall be protected against oxidation during brazing by continuous purging of the inside of the piping using nitrogen. Piping shall be supported prior to brazing and not be sprung or forced. Connections

a.When flared connections are used, a suitable lubricant shall be used between the back of the flare and the nut in order to avoid tearing the flare while tightening the nut. Connections

a.When steel refrigerant piping is used, union or flange joints shall be provided in each line immediately preceding the connection to each piece of equipment requiring maintenance, such as compressors, coils, chillers, control valves, and other similar items. Flanged joints shall be assembled square end tight with matched flanges, gaskets, and bolts. Gaskets shall be suitable for use with the refrigerants to be handled.


a.Refrigerant stop valves shall be installed on each side of each piece of equipment such as compressors condensers, evaporators, receivers, and other similar items in multiple-unit installation, to provide partial system isolation as required for maintenance or repair. Stop valves shall be installed with stems horizontal unless otherwise indicated. Ball valves shall be installed with stems positioned to facilitate operation and maintenance. Isolating valves for pressure gauges and switches shall be external to thermal insulation. Safety switches shall not be fitted with isolation valves. Filter dryers having access ports may be considered a point of isolation. Purge valves shall be provided at all points of systems where accumulated noncondensible gases would prevent proper system operation. Valves shall be furnished to match line size, unless otherwise indicated or approved. Valves

a.Expansion valves shall be installed with the thermostatic expansion valve bulb located on top of the suction line when the suction line is less than 2-1/8 inches in diameter and at the 4 o'clock or 8 o'clock position on lines larger than 2-1/8 inches. The bulb shall be securely fastened with two clamps. The bulb shall be insulated. The bulb shall installed in a horizontal portion of the suction line, if possible, with the pigtail on the bottom. If the bulb must be installed in a vertical line, the bulb tubing shall be facing up. Identification

a.Each system valve, including those which are part of a factory assembly, shall be tagged. Tags shall be in alphanumeric sequence, progressing in direction of fluid flow. Tags shall be embossed, engraved, or stamped plastic or nonferrous metal of various shapes, sized approximately 1-3/8 inch diameter, or equivalent dimension, substantially attached to a component or immediately adjacent thereto. Tags shall be attached with nonferrous, heavy duty, bead or link chain, 14 gauge annealed wire, nylon cable bands or as approved. Tag numbers shall be referenced in Operation and Maintenance Manuals and system diagrams.

1.16.5Filter Dryer liquid line filter dryer shall be provided on each refrigerant circuit located such that all liquid refrigerant passes through a filter dryer. Dryers shall be sized in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations for the system in which it is installed. Dryers shall be installed such that it can be isolated from the system, the isolated portion of the system evacuated, and the filter dryer replaced. Dryers shall be installed in the horizontal position except replaceable core filter dryers may be installed in the vertical position with the access flange on the bottom.

1.16.6Sight Glass moisture indicating sight glass shall be installed in all refrigerant circuits down stream of all filter dryers and where indicated. Site glasses shall be full line size.

1.16.7Accumulator shall be provided in the suction line to each compressor.

1.16.8Pipe Hangers, Inserts, and Supports

Pipe hangers, inserts, and supports shall conform to MSS SP-58 and MSS SP-69, except as modified herein. Pipe hanger types 5, 12, and 26 shall not be used. Hangers used to support piping 2 inches and larger shall be fabricated to permit adequate adjustment after erection while still supporting the load. Piping subjected to vertical movement, when operating temperatures exceed ambient temperatures, shall be supported by variable spring hangers and supports or by constant support hangers.

a.Type 3 shall not be used on insulated piping. Type 24 may be used only on trapeze hanger systems or on fabricated frames.

a.Type 18 inserts shall be secured to concrete forms before concrete is placed. Continuous inserts which allow more adjustments may be used if they otherwise meet the requirements for Type 18 inserts.

a.Type 19 and 23 C-clamps shall be torqued per MSS SP-69 and have both locknuts and retaining devices, furnished by the manufacturer. Field-fabricated C-clamp bodies or retaining devices are not acceptable. Attachments

a.Type 20 attachments used on angles and channels shall be furnished with an added malleable-iron heel plate or adapter. and Shields

a.Where Type 39 saddle or Type 40 shield are permitted for a particular pipe attachment application, the Type 39 saddle, connected to the pipe, shall be used on all pipe 4 inches and larger when the temperature of the medium is 60 degrees F or higher. Type 40 shields shall be used on all piping less than 4 inches and all piping 4 inches and larger carrying medium less than 60 degrees F. A high density insulation insert of cellular glass shall be used under the Type 40 shield for piping 2 inches and larger. Pipe Supports

a.Horizontal pipe supports shall be spaced as specified in MSS SP-69 and a support shall be installed not over 1 foot from the pipe fitting joint at each change in direction of the piping. Pipe supports shall be spaced not over 5 feet apart at valves. Pipe hanger loads suspended from steel joist with hanger loads between panel points in excess of 50 pounds shall have the excess hanger loads suspended from panel points. Pipe Supports

a.Vertical pipe shall be supported at each floor, except at slab-on-grade, and at intervals of not more than 15 feet not more than 8 feet from end of risers, and at vent terminations. Guides

a.Type 35 guides using, steel, reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or graphite slides shall be provided where required to allow longitudinal pipe movement. Lateral restraints shall be provided as required. Slide materials shall be suitable for the system operating temperatures, atmospheric conditions, and bearing loads encountered. Slides

a.Where steel slides do not require provisions for restraint of lateral movement, an alternate guide method may be used. On piping 4 inches and larger, a Type 39 saddle shall be used. On piping under 4 inches, a Type 40 protection shield may be attached to the pipe or insulation and freely rest on a steel slide plate. Temperature Guides with Cradles

a.Where there are high system temperatures and welding to piping is not desirable, then the Type 35 guide shall include a pipe cradle, welded to the guide structure and strapped securely to the pipe. The pipe shall be separated from the slide material by at least 4 inches, or by an amount adequate for the insulation, whichever is greater. Pipe Runs

a.In the support of multiple pipe runs on a common base member, a clip or clamp shall be used where each pipe crosses the base support member. Spacing of the base support members shall not exceed the hanger and support spacing required for an individual pipe in the multiple pipe run. Requirements

a.Piping and attached valves shall be supported and braced to resist seismic loads as specified under UFC 3-310-04 and Sections 13 48 00 Seismic Protection for Miscellaneous Equipment and 13 48 00.00 10 Seismic Protection for Mechanical Equipment. Structural steel required for reinforcement to properly support piping, headers, and equipment but not shown shall be provided under this section. Material used for support shall be as specified under Section 05 12 00 Structural Steel. Attachments

a.Attachment to building structure concrete and masonry shall be by cast-in concrete inserts, built-in anchors, or masonry anchor devices. Inserts and anchors shall be applied with a safety factor not less than 5. Supports shall not be attached to metal decking. Masonry anchors for overhead applications shall be constructed of ferrous materials only. Structural steel brackets required to support piping, headers, and equipment, but not shown, shall be provided under this section. Material used for support shall be as specified under Section 05 12 00 Structural Steel.

1.16.9Pipe Alignment Guides alignment guides shall be provided where indicated for expansion loops, offsets, and bends and as recommended by the manufacturer for expansion joints, not to exceed 5 feet on each side of each expansion joint, and in lines 4 inches or smaller not more than 2 feet on each side of the joint.

1.16.10Pipe Anchors shall be provided wherever necessary or indicated to localize expansion or to prevent undue strain on piping. Anchors shall consist of heavy steel collars with lugs and bolts for clamping and attaching anchor braces, unless otherwise indicated. Anchor braces shall be installed in the most effective manner to secure the desired results using turnbuckles where required. Supports, anchors, or stays shall not be attached where they will injure the structure or adjacent construction during installation or by the weight of expansion of the pipeline. Where pipe and conduit penetrations of vapor barrier sealed surfaces occur, these items shall be anchored immediately adjacent to each penetrated surface, to provide essentially zero movement within penetration seal. Detailed drawings of pipe anchors shall be submitted for approval before installation.

1.16.11Building Surface Penetrations

Sleeves shall not be installed in structural members except where indicated or approved. Sleeves in nonload bearing surfaces shall be galvanized sheet metal, conforming to ASTM A 653, Coating Class G-90, 20 gauge. Sleeves in load bearing surfaces shall be uncoated carbon steel pipe, conforming to ASTM A 53, Schedule 30. Sealants shall be applied to moisture and oil-free surfaces and elastomers to not less than 1/2 inch depth. Sleeves shall not be installed in structural members. Service Areas

a.Each sleeve shall extend through its respective wall, floor, or roof, and shall be cut flush with each surface. Pipes passing through concrete or masonry wall or concrete floors or roofs shall be provided with pipe sleeves fitted into place at the time of construction. Sleeves shall be of such size as to provide a minimum of 1/4 inch all-around clearance between bare pipe and sleeves or between jacketed-insulation and sleeves. Except in pipe chases or interior walls, the annular space between pipe and sleeve or between jacket over-insulation and sleeve shall be sealed in accordance with Section 07 92 00 Joint Sealants. Penetrations

Pipes passing through roof or floor waterproofing membrane shall be installed through a 17 ounce copper sleeve, or a 0.032 inch thick aluminum sleeve, each within an integral skirt or flange. Flashing sleeve shall be suitably formed, and skirt or flange shall extend not less than 8 inches from the pipe and be set over the roof or floor membrane in a troweled coating of bituminous cement. The flashing sleeve shall extend up the pipe a minimum of 2 inches above the roof or floor penetration. The annular space between the flashing sleeve and the bare pipe or between the flashing sleeve and the metal-jacket-covered insulation shall be sealed as indicated. Penetrations shall be sealed by either one of the following methods.

a.Waterproofing Clamping Flange: Pipes up to and including 10 inches in diameter passing through roof or floor waterproofing membrane may be installed through a cast iron sleeve with caulking recess, anchor lugs, flashing clamp device, and pressure ring with brass bolts. Waterproofing membrane shall be clamped into place and sealant shall be placed in the caulking recess.

b.Modular Mechanical Type Sealing Assembly: In lieu of a waterproofing clamping flange and caulking and sealing of annular space between pipe and sleeve or conduit and sleeve, a modular mechanical type sealing assembly may be installed. Seals shall consist of interlocking synthetic rubber links shaped to continuously fill the annular space between the pipe/conduit and sleeve with corrosion protected carbon steel bolts, nuts, and pressure plates. Links shall be loosely assembled with bolts to form a continuous rubber belt around the pipe with a pressure plate under each bolt head and each nut. After the seal assembly is properly positioned in the sleeve, tightening of the bolt shall cause the rubber sealing elements to expand and provide a watertight seal rubber sealing elements to expand and provide a watertight seal between the pipe/conduit seal between the pipe/conduit and the sleeve. Each seal assembly shall be sized as recommended by the manufacturer to fit the pipe/conduit and sleeve involved. The Contractor electing to use the modular mechanical type seals shall provide sleeves of the proper diameters. Penetrations

a.Penetration of fire-rated walls, partitions, and floors shall be sealed as specified in Section 07 84 00 Firestopping.

a.Finished surfaces where exposed piping, bare or insulated, pass through floors, walls, or ceilings, except in boiler, utility, or equipment rooms, shall be provided with escutcheons. Where sleeves project slightly from floors, special deep-type escutcheons shall be used. Escutcheon shall be secured to pipe or pipe covering.

1.16.12Access Panels panels shall be provided for all concealed valves, vents, controls, and items requiring inspection or maintenance. Access panels shall be of sufficient size and located so that the concealed items may be serviced and maintained or completely removed and replaced. Access panels shall be as specified in Section 05 50 00 Metal: Miscellaneous and Fabrications.

1.16.13Field Applied Insulation installed insulation shall be as specified in Section 23 07 00 Thermal Insulation for Mechanical Systems except as defined differently herein.

1.16.14Field Painting

Painting required for surfaces not otherwise specified, and finish painting of items only primed at the factory are specified in Section 09 90 00 Paints and Coatings. Coding

a.Color coding for piping identification is specified in Section 09 90 00 Paints and Coatings. Coding Scheme

a.A color coding scheme for locating hidden piping shall be in accordance with Section 22 00 00 Plumbing, General Purpose.


1.17.1Clean uncontaminated system(s) by evacuation and purging procedures currently recommended by refrigerant and refrigerant equipment manufacturers, and as specified herein, to remove small amounts of air and moisture. Systems containing moderate amounts of air, moisture, contaminated refrigerant, or any foreign matter shall be considered contaminated systems. Restoring contaminated systems to clean condition including disassembly, component replacement, evacuation, flushing, purging, and re-charging, shall be performed using currently approved refrigerant and refrigeration manufacturer's procedures. Restoring contaminated systems shall be at no additional cost to the Government as determined by the Contracting Officer. Water shall not be used in any procedure or test.


After all components of the refrigerant system have been installed and connected, the entire refrigeration system shall be subjected to pneumatic, evacuation, and startup tests as described herein. Tests shall be conducted in the presence of the Contracting Officer. Water and electricity required for the tests will be furnished by the Government. Any material, equipment, instruments, and personnel required for the test shall be provided by the Contractor. The services of a qualified technician shall be provided as required to perform all tests and procedures indicated herein. Field tests shall be coordinated with Section 23 05 93.00 10 Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing of HVAC Systems.

1.18.1Preliminary Procedures to pneumatic testing, equipment which has been factory tested and refrigerant charged as well as equipment which could be damaged or cause personnel injury by imposed test pressure, positive or negative, shall be isolated from the test pressure or removed from the system. Safety relief valves and rupture discs, where not part of factory sealed systems, shall be removed and openings capped or plugged.

1.18.2Pneumatic Test control and excess pressure protection shall be provided at the source of test pressure. Valves shall be wide open, except those leading to the atmosphere. Test gas shall be dry nitrogen, with minus 70 degree F dewpoint and less than 5 ppm oil. Test pressure shall be applied in two stages before any refrigerant pipe is insulated or covered. First stage test shall be at 10 psi with every joint being tested with a thick soap or color indicating solution. Second stage tests shall raise the system to the minimum refrigerant leakage test pressure specified in ASHRAE 15 with a maximum test pressure 25 percent greater. Pressure above 100 psig shall be raised in 10 percent increments with a pressure acclimatizing period between increments. The initial test pressure shall be recorded along with the ambient temperature to which the system is exposed. Final test pressures of the second stage shall be maintained on the system for a minimum of 24 hours. At the end of the 24 hour period, the system pressure will be recorded along with the ambient temperature to which the system is exposed. A correction factor of 0.3 psi will be allowed for each degree F change between test space initial and final ambient temperature, plus for increase and minus for a decrease. If the corrected system pressure is not exactly equal to the initial system test pressure, then the system shall be investigated for leaking joints. To repair leaks, the joint shall be taken apart, thoroughly cleaned, and reconstructed as a new joint. Joints repaired by caulking, remelting, or back-welding/brazing shall not be acceptable. Following repair, the entire system shall be retested using the pneumatic tests described above. The entire system shall be reassembled once the pneumatic tests are satisfactorily completed.

1.18.3Evacuation Test satisfactory completion of the pneumatic tests, the pressure shall be relieved and the entire system shall be evacuated to an absolute pressure of 300 micrometers. During evacuation of the system, the ambient temperature shall be higher than 35 degrees F. No more than one system shall be evacuated at one time by one vacuum pump. Once the desired vacuum has been reached, the vacuum line shall be closed and the system shall stand for 1 hour. If the pressure rises over 500 micrometers after the 1 hour period, then the system shall be evacuated again down to 300 micrometers and let set for another 1 hour period. The system shall not be charged until a vacuum of at least 500 micrometers is maintained for a period of 1 hour without the assistance of a vacuum line. If during the testing the pressure continues to rise, check the system for leaks, repair as required, and repeat the evacuation procedure. During evacuation, pressures shall be recorded by a thermocouple-type, electronic-type, or a calibrated-micrometer type gauge.

1.18.4System Charging and Startup Test satisfactory completion of the evacuation tests, the system shall be charged with the required amount of refrigerant by raising pressure to normal operating pressure and in accordance with manufacturer's procedures. Following charging, the system shall operate with high-side and low-side pressures and corresponding refrigerant temperatures, at design or improved values. The entire system shall be tested for leaks. Fluorocarbon systems shall be tested with halide torch or electronic leak detectors.

1.18.5Refrigerant Leakage a refrigerant leak is discovered after the system has been charged, the leaking portion of the system shall immediately be isolated from the remainder of the system and the refrigerant pumped into the system receiver or other suitable container. Under no circumstances shall the refrigerant be discharged into the atmosphere.

1.18.6Contractor's Responsibility Contractor shall, at all times during the installation and testing of the refrigeration system, take steps to prevent the release of refrigerants into the atmosphere. The steps shall include, but not be limited to, procedures which will minimize the release of refrigerants to the atmosphere and the use of refrigerant recovery devices to remove refrigerant from the system and store the refrigerant for reuse or reclaim. At no time shall more than 3 ounces of refrigerant be released to the atmosphere in any one occurrence. Any system leaks within the first year shall be repaired in accordance with the requirements herein at no cost to the Government including material, labor, and refrigerant if the leak is the result of defective equipment, material, or installation.


1.19.1Contractor shall conduct a training course for members of the operating staff as designated by the Contracting Officer. The training period shall consist of up to 4 hours of normal working time and start after the system is functionally completed but prior to final acceptance tests. The field posted instructions shall cover all of the items contained in the approved operation and maintenance manuals as well as demonstrations of routine maintenance operations.


23 23 00- 02/21/12


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