The government of India is promoting nuclear energy as a solution to the country’s future energy needs and is embarking on a massive nuclear energy expansion




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The Hindu, Nov 6, 2011, http://www.thehindu.com

139“Renouncing nuclear power will hurt nation: Manmohan”, The Times of India, May 17, 2012, http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com; “India's nuclear plants safe, world-class: Manmohan Singh”, DNA, Aug 24, 2011, http://www.dnaindia.com; Krista Mahr, “In Wake of Protests, India Confirms Commitment to Boosting Nuclear Power”, March 30, 2012, http://world.time.com

140“PM firm on n-energy, directs safety upgrades”, The Assam Tribune, June 1, 2011, http://www.assamtribune.com

141"Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan calls for phase-out of nuclear power", Washington Post, July 13, 2011, http://www.washingtonpost.com

142“Fukushima Disaster - One Year Later”, The Radio Ecoshock Show, Mar 13, 2012, http://www.ecoshock.info

143Courting Nuclear Disaster in Maharashtra, CNDP report, Jan 2011, p. 12, report available at http://www.cndpindia.org; Nikhil Ghanekar, “The nuclear park at Jaitapur will be huge. So will the human cost”, Tehelka, Sept 18, 2010, http://www.tehelka.com

144MV Ramana, “Violating Letter and Spirit: Environmental Clearances for Koodankulam Reactors”, http://princeton.academia.edu; M. V. Ramana, Preliminary Observations on the Environmental Impact Assessment of the proposed reactors for Jaitapur, Maharashtra carried out by National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur, unpublished, submitted to the MoEF at the public hearing organised in Madban on the EIA prepared by NEERI, in May 2010

145Courting Nuclear Disaster in Maharashtra, op. cit., p. 12; Bahar Dutt, “Different rules for different people”, Hindustan Times, April 27, 2011, http://www.hindustantimes.com

146Praful Bidwai and M. V. Ramana, “Home, Next to N-Reactor”, Japan Focus, June 18, 2007, http://www.tehelka.com; N. Myers, R. A. Mittermeier, C. G. Mittermeier, G. A. B. Da Fonseca, and J. Kent, “Biodiversity Hotspots for Conservation Priorities”, Nature 403:853–858, Feb 24, 2000, cited in “Western Ghats”, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org, accessed on Jan 30, 2010

147See Chapter 3, Part III

148Praful Bidwai and MV Ramana, “Home, Next to N-Reactor”, op. cit.; Cited in: Buddhi Kota Subbarao, “India’s Nuclear Prowess: False Claims and Tragic Truths”, op. cit.; Donella Meadows, “A Nuclear Power Plant out of the Old World Order”, 2004, http://www.sustainer.org

149All these issues discussed in Chapter 6.

150“Issues at Operating Uranium Mines and Mills – Africa”, updated May 16, 2012, http://www.wise-uranium.org; “Linda Gunter, “The French Nuclear Industry Is Bad Enough in France; Let’s Not Expand It to the U.S.”, op. cit.; Greg Keller, “Nuclear accidents in France raise concern”, July 19, 2008, http://seattletimes.nwsource.com

151See Chapter 6.

152Integrated Energy Policy, 2006, http://planningcommission.nic.in, pp. xiii, 20, 32

153Neeraj Jain, India becoming a colony again, Oct 2010, Lokayat publication, Pune, available online at “Lokayat”, http://lokayat.org.in

154See for example: Bharat Jhunjhunwala, “Will nuclear power really help?”, The Hindu Business Line, Mar 26, 2008, http://www.thehindubusinessline.in

155Even the IEP 2006 admits that while officially 85 percent of villages are considered electrified, around 57 percent of the rural households and 12 percent of the urban households, i.e. 84 million households (over 44.2% of total) in the country did not have electricity in 2000. Source: Integrated Energy Policy, op. cit., p. 2.

156All these facts are well-documented. See for example: http://www.psr.org/assets/pdfs/coals-assault-executive.pdf; Joseph V. Spadaro, et al., Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Electricity Generation Chains: Assessing the Difference, IAEA bulletin, http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Magazines/Bulletin/Bull422/article4.pdf

157Cited in: Balam Vincent and Patrick McCully, “Supreme Contradictions”, http://www.indiatogether.org/opinions/sc-ssp.htm

158Source: Integrated Energy Policy, op. cit., pp. 81-82; and Still Waiting: A Report on Energy Injustice, Report produced by Greenpeace India Society, Oct 2009, available on: http://www.scribd.com/doc/26256876/Still-Waiting; we have modified the figure for “end-use efficiency in other areas (domestic, street lighting, etc.)”: Greenpeace gives it as 20-30%, but other studies put the energy saving potential in end-uses (lighting, cooling, ventilation, refrigeration) at between 20-50%. International best practice is 80% for this category. Therefore, end-use efficiency in India for this category: 80 minus 20-50 = 30-60.

159Shankar Sharma, “Power sector reforms: a pilot study on Karnataka”, http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in

160John Bellamy Foster, Brett Clark and Richard York, “Capitalism and the Curse of Energy Efficiency: The Return of the Jevons Paradox”, Monthly Review, November 2010, Volume 62, Issue 06, http://monthlyreview.org

161Mycle Schneider et al., Nuclear Power in a Post-Fukushima World : The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2010–2011, op. cit., pp. 4, 37; Paul Krugman, “Here comes the Sun”, New York Times, Nov 6, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com; Erik Kirschbaum, “Fallling solar prices good for climate, bad for firms”, Feb 1, 2012, http://www.reuters.com; Rachel Cleetus, “New Reports Show 2011 was banner year for Renewable Energy”, June 11, 2012, www.blog.ucsusa.org

162Mycle Schneider et al., ibid., pp. 37-38; Praful Bidwai, “Renewables Option”, Frontline, Mar 10-23, 2012, http://www.flonnet.com

163Mycle Schneider et al., ibid., pp. 36-37; Marshall Goldberg, “ Federal Energy Subsidies: Not all technologies are created equal”, Renewable Energy Project, July 2000, http://www.earthtrack.net

164Mycle Schneider et al., ibid., pp. 47, 57

165Renewables 2012, Global Status Report, Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century, Paris, pp. 13, 97, http://www.ren21.net

166Ibid., p. 97; figure for small hydro-power taken from Mycle Schneider et al., Nuclear Power in a Post-Fukushima World : The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2010–2011, op. cit., p. 38

167Renewables 2012, Global Status Report, ibid., p. 97; figure for small hydro-power taken from “The Small Hydro-power Market 2011-12”, www.visiongain.com; same figure also given in: “Small Hydro-power : Market Potential in Developing Countries”, Alliance for Rural Electrification, Brussels, www.ruralelec.org

168Calculated from figure of 5360 GW given in Renewables 2012, Global Status Report, ibid., p. 23; for global power generating capacity in 2010, we have deducted 208 GW from it, this being the total electric capacity installed globally in 2010, as given in ibid., p. 23

169Ibid., pp. 47-48, 57-58

170Wind in power - 2011 European statistics, European Wind Energy Association, Feb 2012, p. 6, http://www.ewea.org

171Ibid., p. 8; the figures given in Renewables 2012, Global Status Report, op, cit., p. 98 are higher, at 174 GW, excluding small hydro, but we have taken the figure given by EWEA for consistency with other figures

172Renewables electricity production figures taken from: The State of Renewable Energies in Europe, op. cit., p. 101; this includes large hydropower; large hydropower and small hydropower electricity production figures taken from page 35 of same report; for total electricity consumption in Europe, we have taken the figure for 2009 given in Wind in power - 2011 European statistics, op. cit., p. 11, and calculated the figure for 2010 from it using the growth figures given on page 101 of The State of Renewable Energies in Europe, op. cit.

173Calculated from figures given in: Germany - Renewable Energy Profile, http://www.energici.com; Development of renewable energy sources in Germany 2011, Based on statistical data from the Working Group on Renewable Energy-Statistics (AGEE-Stat), http://www.erneuerbare-energien.de; figures for small hydro taken from The State of Renewable Energies in Europe, 11th EurObserv'ER Report, p. 37, http://www.eurobserv-er.org; we have taken the small hydro-power figures for 2010 in our calculations, as figures for 2011 are presently not available.)

174Renewables 2012, Global Status Report, op. cit., p. 98; Global Wind Report: Annual Market Update 2011, Global Wind Energy Council, www.gwec.net, p. 59; figure for small hydro-power is for 2010, taken from: The State of Renewable Energies in Europe, ibid., p. 37

175Global Wind Report: Annual Market Update 2011, ibid., p. 11; Wind in power - 2011 European statistics, op. cit., p. 11

176Renewables 2012, Global Status Report, op. cit., p. 59

177Fereidoon Sioshansi, “EU On Track To Exceed 50% Renewable Generation By 2030”, March 3, 2012, http://www.energypolicyblog.com

178Renewable Energy, Greenpeace document, Feb 2012, http://www.greenpeace.org/usa

179Alice Slater, “A sustainable planet: shifting the energy paradigm”, in Ray Acheson, Ed., “Costs, risks, and myths of nuclear power”, Reaching Critical Will, a project of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, p. 40

180Renewables 2012, Global Status Report, op. cit., p. 20; Praful Bidwai, “Renewables Option”, op. cit.

181“Despite falling cost of solar power generation, it will survive on subsidies”, The Economic Times, May 4, 2012, http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com

182Global Wind Report: Annual Market Update 2011, op. cit., p. 44

183Praful Bidwai, “Renewables Option”, op. cit.

184Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Annual Report 2009-10, http://mnre.gov.in G. M. Pillai, “Need for a new energy policy”, Green Energy, May-June 2009, p. 18: publication of WISE, www.wisein.org; available online at: http://www.wise-cleanenergy.info/green-energy/GE-May-June09.pdf

185 Praful Bidwai, “N-power is mired in deception”, The Daily Star, Nov 17, 2011, http://www.thedailystar.net



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