AFFILIATED INSTITUTIONS ANNA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY CHENNAI :: CHENNAI 600 113 CURRICULUM 2010 B.E. ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING CURRICULA AND SYLLABI FOR IV SEMESTER
SEMESTER IV (Applicable to the students admitted from the Academic year 2010–2011 onwards) Code No.  Course Title  L  T  P  C  THEORY  181403  Probability and Random Processes  3  1  0  4  147401  Electronic Circuits II  3  1  0  4  147402  Communication Theory  3  1  0  4  147403  Electromagnetic Fields  3  1  0  4  147404  Linear Integrated Circuits  3  0  0  3  147405  Control Systems  3  0  0  3  PRACTICAL  147451  Electronics circuits II and simulation lab  0  0  3  2  147452  Linear Integrated Circuit Lab  0  0  3  2  147453  Electrical Engineering and Control System Lab  0  0  3  2 
181403 PROBABILITY AND RANDOM PROCESSES 3 1 0 4 (Common to ECE & Bio Medical Engineering) AIM This course aims at providing the necessary basic concepts in random processes. Knowledge of fundamentals and applications of random phenomena will greatly help in the understanding of topics such as signals & systems, pattern recognition, voice and image processing and filtering theory.
OBJECTIVES At the end of the course, the students would Have a fundamental knowledge of the basic probability concepts. Have a wellfounded knowledge of standard distributions which can describe real life phenomena. Acquire skills in handling situations involving more than one random variable and functions of random variables. Understand and characterize phenomena which evolve with respect to time in probabilistic manner. Be able to analyze the response of random inputs to linear time invariant systems.
UNIT I RANDOM VARIABLES 9 + 3 Discrete and continuous random variables – Moments  Moment generating functions and their properties. Binomial, Poisson ,Geometric, Uniform, Exponential, Gamma and normal distributions – Function of Random Variable.
UNIT II TWO DIMENSIONAL RANDOM VARIBLES 9 + 3
Joint distributions  Marginal and conditional distributions – Covariance  Correlation and Regression  Transformation of random variables  Central limit theorem (for iid random variables)
UNIT III Classification of RANDOM PROCESSES 9 + 3
Definition and examples  first order, second order, strictly stationary, widesense stationary and ergodic processes  Markov process  Binomial, Poisson and Normal processes  Sine wave process – Random telegraph process. UNIT IV Correlation and spectral densities 9 + 3 Auto correlation  Cross correlation  Properties – Power spectral density – Cross spectral density  Properties – WienerKhintchine relation – Relationship between cross power spectrum and cross correlation function UNIT V LINEAR SYSTEMS WITH RANDOM INPUTS 9 + 3 Linear time invariant system  System transfer function – Linear systems with random inputs – Auto correlation and cross correlation functions of input and output – white noise.
LECTURES : 45 TUTORIAL : 15 TOTAL : 60 PERIODS
TEXT BOOKS Oliver C. Ibe, “Fundamentals of Applied probability and Random processes”, Elsevier, First Indian Reprint ( 2007) (For units 1 and 2)
Peebles Jr. P.Z., “Probability Random Variables and Random Signal Principles”, Tata McGrawHill Publishers, Fourth Edition, New Delhi, 2002. (For units 3, 4 and 5).
REFERENCES Miller,S.L and Childers, S.L, “Probability and Random Processes with applications to Signal Processing and Communications”, Elsevier Inc., First Indian Reprint 2007.
H. Stark and J.W. Woods, “Probability and Random Processes with Applications to Signal Processing”, Pearson Education (Asia), 3^{rd} Edition, 2002.
Hwei Hsu, “Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Probability, Random Variables and Random Processes”, Tata McGrawHill edition, New Delhi, 2004. LeonGarcia,A, “Probability and Random Processes for Electrical Engineering”, Pearson Education Asia, Second Edition, 2007. Yates and D.J. Goodman, “Probability and Stochastic Processes”, John Wiley and Sons, Second edition, 2005.
147401 ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS II 3 1 0 4
AIM The aim of this course is to familiarize the student with the analysis and design of feed back amplifiers, oscillators, tuned amplifiers, wave shaping circuits, multivibrators and blocking oscillators.
OBJECTIVES On completion of this course the student will understand The advantages and method of analysis of feedback amplifiers Analysis and design of LC and RC oscillators, tuned amplifiers, wave shaping circuits, multivibrators, blocking oscillators and time base generators.
UNIT 1 FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS 9
Block diagram, Loop gain, Gain with feedback, Effects of negative feedback – Sensitivity and desensitivity of gain, Cutoff frequencies, distortion, noise, input impedance and output impedance with feedback, Four types of negative feedback connections – voltage series feedback, voltage shunt feedback, current series feedback and current shunt feedback, Method of identifying feedback topology and feedback factor, Nyquist criterion for stability of feedback amplifiers.
UNIT II OSCILLATORS 9
Classification, Barkhausen Criterion  Mechanism for start of oscillation and stabilization of amplitude, General form of an Oscillator, Analysis of LC oscillators  Hartley, Colpitts, Clapp, Franklin, Armstrong, Tuned collector oscillators, RC oscillators  phase shift – Wienbridge  TwinT Oscillators, Frequency range of RC and LC Oscillators, Quartz Crystal Construction, Electrical equivalent circuit of Crystal, Miller and Pierce Crystal oscillators, frequency stability of oscillators.
UNIT III TUNED AMPLIFIERS 9
Coil losses, unloaded and loaded Q of tank circuits, small signal tuned amplifiers  Analysis of capacitor coupled single tuned amplifier – double tuned amplifier  effect of cascading single tuned and double tuned amplifiers on bandwidth – Stagger tuned amplifiers – large signal tuned amplifiers – Class C tuned amplifier – Efficiency and applications of Class C tuned amplifier  Stability of tuned amplifiers – Neutralization  Hazeltine neutralization method.
UNIT IV WAVE SHAPING AND MULTIVIBRATOR CIRCUITS 9
RC & RL Integrator and Differentiator circuits – Storage, Delay and Calculation of Transistor Switching Times – Speedup Capaitor  Diode clippers, Diode comparator  Clampers. Collector coupled and Emitter coupled Astable multivibrator  Monostable multivibrator  Bistable multivibrators  Triggering methods for Bistable multivibrators  Schmitt trigger circuit.
UNIT V BLOCKING OSCILLATORS AND TIMEBASE GENERATORS 9
UJT sawtooth waveform generator, Pulse transformers – equivalent circuit – response  applications, Blocking Oscillator – Free running blocking oscillator  Astable Blocking Oscillators with base timing – Pushpull Astable blocking oscillator with emitter timing, Frequency control using core saturation, Triggered blocking oscillator – Monostable blocking oscillator with base timing – Monostable blocking oscillator with emitter timing, Time base circuits  VoltageTime base circuit, CurrentTime base circuit  Linearization through adjustment of driving waveform.
TUTORIAL= 15 TOTAL = 60
TEXT BOOKS Sedra / Smith, Micro Electronic Circuits Oxford University Press, 2004. S. Salivahanan, N. Suresh Kumar and A. Vallavaraj, Electronic Devices and Circuits, 2^{nd} Edition, TMH, 2007.
REFERENCES Millman J. and Taub H., Pulse Digital and Switching Waveforms, TMH, 2000. Schilling and Belove, Electronic Circuits, 3^{rd} Edition, TMH, 2002. Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nasheresky, Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 9^{th} Edition, Pearson Education / PHI, 2002. David A. Bell, Solid State Pulse Circuits, Prentice Hall of India, 1992. Millman and Halkias. C., Integrated Electronics, TMH, 1991.
147402 COMMUNICATION THEORY 3 1 0 4
AIM To study the various analog communication fundamentals viz., Amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation. Noise performance of various receivers and information theory with source coding theorem are also dealt.
OBJECTIVE
To provide various Amplitude modulation and demodulation systems. To provide various Angle modulation and demodulation systems. To provide some depth analysis in noise performance of various receiver. To study some basic information theory with some channel coding theorem.
AMPLITUDE MODULATION SYSTEMS 10 Review of Spectral Characteristics of Periodic and Nonperiodic signals; Generation and Demodulation of AM, DSBSC, SSB and VSB Signals; Comparison of Amplitude Modulation Systems; Frequency Translation; FDM; Non – Linear Distortion.
ANGLE MODULATION SYSTEMS 8 Phase and Frequency Modulation; Single tone, Narrow Band and Wideband FM; Transmission Bandwidth; Generation and Demodulation of FM Signal. NOISE THEORY 8 Review of Probability, Random Variables and Random Process; Guassian Process; Noise – Shot noise, Thermal noise and white noise; Narrow band noise, Noise temperature; Noise Figure.
4. PERFORMANCE OF CW MODULATION SYSTEMS 10 Superheterodyne Radio receiver and its characteristic; SNR; Noise in DSBSC systems using coherent detection; Noise in AM system using envelope detection and its FM system; FM threshold effect; Preemphasis and Deemphasis in FM; Comparison of performances.
5. INFORMATION THEORY 9
Discrete Messages and Information Content, Concept of Amount of Information, Average information, Entropy, Information rate, Source coding to increase average information per bit, ShannonFano coding, Huffman coding, LempelZiv (LZ) coding, Shannon’s Theorem, Channel Capacity, Bandwidth S/N tradeoff, Mutual information and channel capacity, rate distortion theory, Lossy Source coding.
TUTORIAL 15 TOTAL : 60
TEXT BOOKS
Dennis Roddy & John Coolen  Electronic Communication (IV Ed.), Prentice Hall of India. Herbert Taub & Donald L Schilling – Principles of Communication Systems ( 3^{rd} Edition ) – Tata McGraw Hill, 2008.
REFERENCE:
Simon Haykin, Communication Systems, John Wiley & sons, NY, 4^{th} Edition, 2001. Bruce Carlson  Communication Systems. (III Ed.), Mc Graw Hill. B.P.Lathi, Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, Third Edition, Oxfod Press,2007. R.P Singh and S.D.Sapre, “Communication Systems – Analog and Digital”, Tata McGraw Hill, 2^{nd} Edition, 2007. John G. Proakis, Masoud Salehi, Fundamentals of Communication Systems, Pearson Education, 2006.
147403 ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 3 1 0 4
AIM To familiarize the student to the concepts, calculations and pertaining to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields so that an in depth understanding of antennas, electronic devices, Waveguides is possible.
OBJECTIVES To analyze fields a potentials due to static changes To evaluate static magnetic fields To understand how materials affect electric and magnetic fields To understand the relation between the fields under time varying situations To understand principles of propagation of uniform plane waves.
UNIT I STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS 9
Introduction to Coordinate System – Rectangular – Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinate System – Introduction to line, Surface and Volume Integrals – Definition of Curl, Divergence and Gradient – Meaning of Stokes theorem and Divergence theorem Coulomb’s Law in Vector Form – Definition of Electric Field Intensity – Principle of Superposition – Electric Field due to discrete charges – Electric field due to continuous charge distribution  Electric Field due to charges distributed uniformly on an infinite and finite line – Electric Field on the axis of a uniformly charged circular disc – Electric Field due to an infinite uniformly charged sheet. Electric Scalar Potential – Relationship between potential and electric field  Potential due to infinite uniformly charged line – Potential due to electrical dipole  Electric Flux Density – Gauss Law – Proof of Gauss Law – Applications.
UNIT II STATIC MAGNETIC FIELD 9
The BiotSavart Law in vector form – Magnetic Field intensity due to a finite and infinite wire carrying a current I – Magnetic field intensity on the axis of a circular and rectangular loop carrying a current I – Ampere’s circuital law and simple applications. Magnetic flux density – The Lorentz force equation for a moving charge and applications – Force on a wire carrying a current I placed in a magnetic field – Torque on a loop carrying a current I – Magnetic moment – Magnetic Vector Potential.
UNIT III ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS IN MATERIALS 9
Poisson’s and Laplace’s equation – Electric PolarizationNature of dielectric materials Definition of Capacitance – Capacitance of various geometries using Laplace’s equation – Electrostatic energy and energy density – Boundary conditions for electric fields – Electric current – Current density – point form of ohm’s law – continuity equation for current. Definition of Inductance – Inductance of loops and solenoids – Definition of mutual inductance – simple examples. Energy density in magnetic fields – Nature of magnetic materials – magnetization and permeability  magnetic boundary conditions.
UNIT IV TIME VARYING ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS 9
Faraday’s law – Maxwell’s Second Equation in integral form from Faraday’s Law – Equation expressed in point form. Displacement current – Ampere’s circuital law in integral form – Modified form of Ampere’s circuital law as Maxwell’s first equation in integral form – Equation expressed in point form. Maxwell’s four equations in integral form and differential form. Poynting Vector and the flow of power – Power flow in a coaxial cable – Instantaneous Average and Complex Poynting Vector.
UNIT V ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 9
Derivation of Wave Equation – Uniform Plane Waves – Maxwell’s equation in Phasor form – Wave equation in Phasor form – Plane waves in free space and in a homogenous material. Wave equation for a conducting medium – Plane waves in lossy dielectrics – Propagation in good conductors – Skin effect. Linear, Elliptical and circular polarization – Reflection of Plane Wave from a conductor – normal incidence – Reflection of Plane Waves by a perfect dielectric – normal and oblique incidence. Dependence on Polarization. Brewster angle.
TUTORIAL 15 TOTAL : 60
TEXTBOOKS
W H.Hayt & J A Buck : “Engineering Electromagnetics” TATA McGrawHill, 7^{th} Edition 2007 (Unit I,II,III ). E.C. Jordan & K.G. Balmain “Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems.” Pearson Education/PHI 4^{nd} edition 2006. (Unit IV, V).
REFERENCES
1. Matthew N.O.Sadiku: “Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics” Oxford University Press, 4th edition, 2007 2. Narayana Rao, N : “Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics” 6^{th} edition, Pearson Education, New Delhi, 2006. 3. Ramo, Whinnery and Van Duzer: “Fields and Waves in Communications Electronics” John Wiley & Sons ,3^{rd} edition 2003. 4. David K.Cheng: “Field and Wave Electromagnetics  Second EditionPearson Edition, 2004. 5. G.S.N. Raju, Electromagnetic Field Theory & Transmission Lines, Pearson Education, 2006
147404 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 3 0 0 3
AIM:
To teach the basic concepts in the design of electronic circuits using linear integrated circuits and their applications in the processing of analog signals.
OBJECTIVES
To introduce the basic building blocks of linear integrated circuits. To teach the linear and nonlinear applications of operational amplifiers. To introduce the theory and applications of analog multipliers and PLL. To teach the theory of ADC and DAC To introduce the concepts of waveform generation and introduce some special function ICs.
UNIT  I IC FABRICATION AND CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION FOR LINEAR ICs 9 Advantages of Ics over discrete components – Manufacturing process of monolithic Ics – Construction of monolithic bipolar transistor – Monolithic diodes – Integrated Resistors – Monolithic Capacitors – Inductors. Current mirror and current sources, Current sources as active loads, Voltage sources, Voltage References, BJT Differential amplifier with active loads, General operational amplifier stages and internal circuit diagrams of IC 741, DC and AC performance characteristics, slew rate, Open and closed loop configurations.
UNIT  II APPLICATIONS OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 9
Sign Changer, Scale Changer, Phase Shift Circuits, Voltage Follower, VtoI and ItoV converters, adder, subtractor, Instrumentation amplifier, Integrator, Differentiator, Logarithmic amplifier, Antilogarithmic amplifier, Comparators, Schmitt trigger, Precision rectifier, peak detector, clipper and clamper, Lowpass, highpass and bandpass Butterworth filters.
UNIT  III ANALOG MULTIPLIER AND PLL 9
Analog Multiplier using Emitter Coupled Transistor Pair  Gilbert Multiplier cell  Variable transconductance technique, analog multiplier ICs and their applications, Operation of the basic PLL, Closed loop analysis, Voltage controlled oscillator, Monolithic PLL IC 565, application of PLL for AM detection, FM detection, FSK modulation and demodulation and Frequency synthesizing.
UNIT  IV ANALOG TO DIGITAL AND DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTERS 8
Analog and Digital Data Conversions, D/A converter – specifications  weighted resistor type, R2R Ladder type, Voltage Mode and CurrentMode Ladder types  switches for D/A converters, high speed sampleandhold circuits, A/D Converters – specifications  Flash type  Successive Approximation type  Single Slope type  Dual Slope type  A/D Converter using VoltagetoTime Conversion  Oversampling A/D Converters.
UNIT  V WAVEFORM GENERATORS AND SPECIAL FUNCTION ICs 9
Sinewave generators, Multivibrators and Triangular wave generator, Sawtooth wave generator, ICL8038 function generator, Timer IC 555, IC Voltage regulators  Three terminal fixed and adjustable voltage regulators  IC 723 general purpose regulator  Monolithic switching regulator, Switched capacitor filter IC MF10, Frequency to Voltage and Voltage to Frequency converters, Audio Power amplifier, Video Amplifier, Isolation Amplifier, Optocouplers and fibre optic IC. TOTAL : 45 PERIODS
TEXT BOOKS: Sergio Franco, Design with operational amplifiers and analog integrated circuits, 3^{rd} Edition, Tata McGrawHill, 2007. D.Roy Choudhry, Shail Jain, Linear Integrated Circuits, New Age International Pvt. Ltd., 2000.
REFERENCES: B.S.Sonde, System design using Integrated Circuits , New Age Pub, 2nd Edition, 2001 Gray and Meyer, Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits, Wiley International, 2005. Ramakant A.Gayakwad, OPAMP and Linear ICs, Prentice Hall / Pearson Education, 4^{th} Edition, 2001. J.Michael Jacob, Applications and Design with Analog Integrated Circuits, Prentice Hall of India, 1996. William D.Stanley, Operational Amplifiers with Linear Integrated Circuits, Pearson Education, 2004. K Lal Kishore, Operational Amplifier and Linear Integrated Circuits, Pearson Education, 2006. S.Salivahanan & V.S. Kanchana Bhaskaran, Linear Integrated Circuits, TMH, 2008.
147405 CONTROL SYSTEMS 3 0 0 3
AIM To familiarize the students with concepts related to the operation analysis and stabilization of control systems
OBJECTIVES To understand the open loop and closed loop (feedback ) systems To understand time domain and frequency domain analysis of control systems required for stability analysis. To understand the compensation technique that can be used to stabilize control systems
1. CONTROL SYSTEM MODELING 9 Basic Elements of Control System – Open loop and Closed loop systems  Differential equation  Transfer function, Modeling of Electric systems, Translational and rotational mechanical systems  Block diagram reduction Techniques  Signal flow graph
2. TIME RESPONSE ANALYSIS 9 Time response analysis  First Order Systems  Impulse and Step Response analysis of second order systems  Steady state errors – P, PI, PD and PID Compensation, Analysis using MATLAB
3. FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS 9 Frequency Response  Bode Plot, Polar Plot, Nyquist Plot  Frequency Domain specifications from the plots  Constant M and N Circles  Nichol’s Chart  Use of Nichol’s Chart in Control System Analysis. Series, Parallel, seriesparallel Compensators  Lead, Lag, and Lead Lag Compensators, Analysis using MATLAB.
4. STABILITY ANALYSIS 9 Stability, RouthHurwitz Criterion, Root Locus Technique, Construction of Root Locus, Stability, Dominant Poles, Application of Root Locus Diagram  Nyquist Stability Criterion  Relative Stability, Analysis using MATLAB
5. STATE VARIABLE ANALYSIS & DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS 9 State space representation of Continuous Time systems – State equations – Transfer function from State Variable Representation – Solutions of the state equations  Concepts of Controllability and Observability – State space representation for Discrete time systems. Sampled Data control systems – Sampling Theorem – Sample & Hold – Open loop & Closed loop sampled data systems. TOTAL : 45 PERIODS
TEXTBOOK:
J.Nagrath and M.Gopal,” Control System Engineering”, New Age International Publishers, 5^{th} Edition, 2007. M.Gopal, “Control System – Principles and Design”, Tata McGraw Hill, 2^{nd} Edition, 2002.
REFERENCES:
1. Benjamin.C.Kuo, “Automatic control systems”, Prentice Hall of India, 7^{th} Edition,1995. 2. M.Gopal, Digital Control and State Variable Methods, 2^{nd} Edition, TMH, 2007. 3. Schaum’s Outline Series,’Feedback and Control Systems’ Tata McGraw Hill, 2007. 4. John J.D’azzo & Constantine H.Houpis, ’Linear control system analysis and design’, Tata McGrowHill, Inc., 1995. 5. Richard C. Dorf & Robert H. Bishop, “ Modern Control Systems”, Addidon – Wesley, 1999.
147451 ELECTRONICS CIRCUITS II AND SIMULATION LAB 0 0 3 2 Design of following circuits Series and Shunt feedback amplifiers: Frequency response, Input and output impedance calculation RC Phase shift oscillator, Wien Bridge Oscillator Hartley Oscillator, Colpitts Oscillator Tuned Class C Amplifier Integrators, Differentiators, Clippers and Clampers Astable, Monostable and Bistable multivibrators
SIMULATION USING PSPICE: Differential amplifier Active filters : Butterworth 2^{nd} order LPF, HPF (Magnitude & Phase Response) Astable, Monostable and Bistable multivibrator  Transistor bias D/A and A/D converters (Successive approximation) Analog multiplier CMOS Inverter, NAND and NOR^{ }
LIST OF EQUIPMENTS AND COMPONENTS FOR A BATCH OF 30 STUDENTS (3 per Batch)
S.No  Name of the equipments / Components  Quantity Required  Remarks  1  Variable DC Power Supply  8  (030V)  2  Fixed Power Supply  4  + /  12V  3  CRO  6  30MHz  4  Multimeter  6  Digital  5  Multimeter  2  Analog  6  Function Generator  6  1 MHz  7  Digital LCR Meter  1 
 8  PC with SPICE Simulation Software  6 
 Consumables (Minimum of 25 Nos. each)  9  BC107, BF195, 2N2222, BC147 

 10  Resistors 1/4 Watt Assorted 

 11  Capacitors 

 12  Inductors 

 13  Diodes, Zener Diodes 

 14  Bread Boards 


147452 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB 0 0 3 2 Design and testing of Inverting, Non inverting and Differential amplifiers. Integrator and Differentiator. Instrumentation amplifier Active lowpass, Highpass and bandpass filters. Astable & Monostable multivibrators and Schmitt Trigger using opamp. Phase shift and Wien bridge oscillators using opamp. Astable and monostable multivibrators using NE555 Timer. PLL characteristics and its use as Frequency Multiplier. DC power supply using LM317 and LM723. Study of SMPS. Simulation of Experiments 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 using PSpice netlists.
Note: OpAmps uA741, LM 301, LM311, LM 324 & AD 633 may be used LIST OF EQUIPMENTS AND COMPONENTS FOR A BATCH OF 30 STUDENTS (3 per Batch)
S.No  Name of the equipments / Components  Quantity Required  Remarks  1  Dual ,(030V) variable Power Supply  10    2  CRO  9  30MHz  3  Digital Multimeter  10  Digital  4  Function Generator  8  1 MHz  5  IC Tester (Analog)  2 
 6  Bread board  10 
 7  Computer (PSPICE installed)  1 
 Consumables (Minimum of 25 Nos. each)  1  IC 741  25 
 2  IC NE555  25 
 3  LED  25 
 4  LM317  25 
 5  LM723  25 
 6  ICSG3524 / SG3525  25 
 7  Transistor – 2N3391  25 
 8  Diodes,  25  IN4001,BY126  9  Zener diodes  25 
 10  Potentiometer 

 11  Stepdown transformer  1  230V/12012V  12  Capacitor 

 13  Resistors 1/4 Watt Assorted  25 
 14  Single Strand Wire 

 