Lee : this sceptred isle: the twentieth century




НазваниеLee : this sceptred isle: the twentieth century
страница1/11
Дата08.10.2012
Размер0.49 Mb.
ТипДокументы
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11

LEE: THIS SCEPTRED ISLE: THE TWENTIETH CENTURY



- 3 main political parties: Liberals, Conservatives (Unionists) and the Liberal Unionists

- Lib.Unionists were men who had broken from the main Lib. Party during end of 19th c. b/c Gladstone wanted Home Rule for Ireland

- Independent Labour Party (ILP) formed in 1893

- 1900: ILP joined with like-minded org. inc. the Fabians to form the Labour Representation Committee

- 1906: After general election this group became Labour Party


CHAPTER ONE - THE NEW CENTURY 1901-1909


1901:

- Queen Victoria (81) died on 22 Jan - her black widow’s weeds became a symbol of Victorian Britain

- her death didn’t change the lives of anyone outside gov’t and royal family

- Queen’s sone became Edward VII, but he wasn’t a Hanoverian (with her died the House of Hanover)

- Edward VII’s father was Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, so the House of Saxe-Coburg was on the throne (the line had to come though the father!)

- he was born in 1841, he was a problem heir apparent: he was considered frivolous and not at all suited to the heavy responsibilities of monarchy (he waited 60 years to be King)

- 1860: he had been the 1st Prince of Wales to tour Canada; he also went to India and in 1869 to Egypt

- on St. Valentine’s Day the new monarch opened the first Parliament of his reign

- British troops had been engaged in the Second Boer War since 1899

- following the relief of Mafeking in May 1900 after a 217-day siege, the media made Baden-Powell into a national hero

- the British Army committed the most appalling atrocities as did Baden-Powell: he starved the natives

- Lord Kitchener, the hero of Khartoum, had been appointed commander-in-chief in 1900 and had tried to negotiate some form of peace, but the Boers would not give in (guerrilla campaign)

- Kitcheners began his ‘scorched earth policy’ (burning farms and clearing the veldt)

- the refugees were put into camps – uncontainable disease and very high death rates

- the truth of these conditions was slow to emerge, and newspapers like The Times attempted to cover up the existence of the camps

- the Germans supported the Boers and criticised the British

- relations between the two countries were made worse

- the British believed the Boer War was a just cause because the Boers had started it

- fighting went on until May the following year


- Britain was changing, but only slowly

- huge expansion: in 1901 there were only 703 drivers – by 1911 48,000

- less than 20% of London’s population went to church (those who did were higher in the social scale)

- Britain’s economy was strong, but other economies had been rising - the nation was not disaster proof

- Lord Palmerston successfully ended the Crimean War (mid-1850s)

- critics of the gov’t’s handling of the Boer War were unable to produce a Palmerston

- economic climate of 1901: wasn’t as good as earlier

- the Germans and Americans were now successful economic rivals

- trade unions were represented in the House of Commons

- Britain was importing more than it was exporting

- the British Empire covered a third of the globe

- ship design produced economic expansion

- 1900: a British shipyard built the biggest ever warship for the Japanese navy

- Japan was an ally (helped to suppress the Boxer Rebellion in China)

- British attempts to bring about some Anglo-German pact: Joseph Chamberlain: he had been appointed Secretary for the Colonies in 1895

- 1898: Chamberlain proposed a formal alliance – his offer got nowhere

- 1899: Tsar Nicholas II’s foreign minister, Count Muravyov, convened a world peace conference in The Hague and discussed imposing limits on armaments

- the conference achieved little – established the International Court of Arbitration but did nothing to allay British, and probably German, suspicions that a Franco-Russian axis threatened Europe

- the Kaiser told Edward that their two nations should be formally allied

- Britain had pursued a largely isolationist policy, almost since the date of Nelson’s victory at Trafalgar in October 1805 (that victory encouraged a general acceptance that Britain ruled the waves)

- by the mid-1890’s there was a clear division in Europe:

- on one side was the Triple Alliance (concluded in 1882) /system of agreements protecting Germany and Italy from an attack by France/ - on the other side was the alignment of France and Russia

- many believed that an arrangement with Germany was vital (Germany could look after Europe on the land; Britain could guarantee the high seas)

- the Kaiser had believed that Britain and Germany could guarantee the peace of Europe

- European interests meant protection from the Russians and their ambitions in the Far East

- Salisbury’s gov’t wished to keep the Russians out of the strategically & commercially important Far East

- towards the end of 1901 an Anglo-Japanese agreement was drafted for signature in January 1902

- an alliance with Germany remained a proposition with more against than for

- by summer it was clear that there would be no pact

- Britain’s isolationism was coming to an end

- the century of communications had truly arrived


1902:

- January: London was suffering from an outbreak of smallpox - 2000 people died

- the population of Greater London was 6.5 million

- political & industrial dramas: a coronation, a new PM, the end of the Boer War and the new Education Act

♦ coronation celebration in August

♦ May: the Boer War came to an end when the Boers arrived in Pretoria to surrender to Lord Milner & Lord Kitchener

- the war had lasted for more than 2 and a half years: 22,000 British soldiers had died (16,000 of them died of disease)

- at least 20,000 Boers died in British concentration camps

- the Peace of Vereeniging - simple and predictable settlement terms

Britain’s annexation of Orange Free State and Transvaal was unquestioned

English became the national language, although Dutch could be used in schools and law courts + there was an undated promise of self-government

Britain was to pay for the rebuilding of the Boer farms that had been destroyed

- the agreement made no harsh demands and promised a reasonable reconciliation

- within 4 years Transvaal and Orange Free State had self-governments

- Louis Botha & Jan Smuts were instrumental in maintaining the peaceful relationship with London

- in 1910: relatively straightforward transition to the Dominion of South Africa

- in 1900: the Khaki Election (army’s new uniform) was called by Salisbury – he was returned

- the Liberals suffered at this election

- Salisbury was old, tired and far from well (he succeeded Disraeli as Conservative leader in 1881)

- the new PM was his nephew, Arthur Balfour

- he was called ‘Bloody Balfour’ after the Mitchelstown massacre in 1887

- he became Tory leader in the Commons (the Tory Party was increasingly uncertain and dissatisfied)

- 30 per cent of the nation lived below the poverty line

- the Independent Labour Party was beginning to be a home for this group

- there were still legal restrictions on what a union could do

- by 1871 the unions had proper legal standing (union movement)

- Balfour Education Act - one of the most imp. pieces of education legislation in the whole century

- Morant’s view was that internal politics in school boards were damaging and the almost universal bickering added nothing to the already inefficient administration

- the school board system was abolished – secondary education was brought under the control of borough and county councils

- two Acts of 1902 and the amendment passed in 1903 meant that elementary schooling was now funded by ratepayers

- Britain was leading the technological and scientific evolution

- by 1914 about 200,000 youngsters were receiving higher education

- there were few universities at the turn of the century

- university reform began in the 1870s


- the colleges in Leeds, Liverpool and Manchester were grouped together and patriotically called Victoria University

- 1848: Queen’s College opened for women

- 1849: Bedford College in London became the first degree-awarding college for women

- 1870: Cambridge allowed women to attend some, but not all, lectures

- 1873: Girton College was opened

- it was not until 1947 that Cambridge gave women the same university status as men

- Birmingham University was opened in 1900, making Birmingham the first city to have a modern university of its own rather than a mix of colleges from other cities and towns

/- 1903: the 3 colleges of Victoria University were separated and the Manchester and Liverpool schools re-opened as universities in their own right

- 1904: Leeds followed

- 1905: Sheffield opened

- 1909: Bristol opened/


1903:

- 1 Jan: India proclaimed its loyalty to its Emperor, Edward VII, at a durbar (udvari ünnepség)

- Feb: soldiers from Punjab went to Somaliland to join British forces fighting Mohammed bin Abdullah (the Mad Mullah) – he continued to harass British until 1920

- government: the arguments over education and free trade were getting more intense

- free trade and tariff reform were at the head of the political agenda

- free Trade: the import and export of goods without tariffs and quotas

- July 1902: leaders of the self-governing colonies (Australia, Canada, Cape Colony, Natal, Newfoundland, New Zealand) lobbied Chamberlain at the Imperial Conference

- Imperial preference: they wanted the gov’t to exempt them from paying 5 shillings import duty on corn, thereby giving corn-growers within the Empire an advantage over non-Empire producers

- during the winter of 1902-03 Charles Ritchie (Chancellor of the Exchequer) and Balfour scuppered (ruined) any plans Chamberlain had for Imperial preference

- the Budget announced in April 1903 abolished corn import duties altogether

- Gladstonian fairness: the ability to make something popular because it appeared to be fair

- Gladstone promoted free trade

- in the first decade of 20th century Britain didn’t have a welfare state

- Chamberlain tried to develop the idea of old age pensions

- political schism: Chamberlain was part of a coalition Cabinet in which the Conservatives were the majority party and the PM was a Tory. They were kept together by their opposition to Home Rule for Ireland – hence the title: Unionist

- problem: Chamberlain was talking about getting rid of free trade

- Salisbury, the last PM to sit in the House of Lords, died

- he had been Conservative PM 3 times (1885-6, 1886-92 and 1895-1902)

- Balfour was not on Chamberlain’s side, but he did see tariffs as a potential weapon against other countries that also imposed tariffs

- in August: Chamberlain resigned

- Balfour got rid of the hard-liners in the Cabinet, including Ritchie

- in his place he appointed Chamberlain’s son, Austen Chamberlain

- this encouraged the tariff reformers but did not stop the splits

- the MP for Oldham, Winston Churchill, a supporter of free trade, left the party the following year and joined the Liberals

- the Tariff Reform League was formed with the aim of turning the colonies, the British Empire, into a structured trading bloc

- Chamberlain’s opponent: Asquith (a Liberal, once Gladstone’s Home Secretary)


- October: Mrs Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughter Christabel founded the Women’s Social and Political Union – its slogan was ‘Deeds not Words’

- Jews were murdered in Russia

- August: the future of Zionism and a homeland for Jews was discussed at the Zionist Congress in Basle – the British suggested Uganda – the plan was rejected

- April: the spectre of yet another Balkan war appeared - the Turks mobilised more than 200,000 troops for Macedonia as civil unrest against Turkish authority grew

- the British gov’t announced that it was to build a new naval base in the Firth of Forth


1904:

- tensions between Japan and Russia

- British isolationist tendency

- end of January: Britain and France were drawn together

- April: the French and British governments signed the Entente Cordiale (basis for the Anglo-French alliance in WWI)

- the foreign secretary, Lansdowne, realized that isolationism was drawing to a close

- 1 February: Britain & France agreed that neither would get involved should the St. Petersburg talks break down (France had a treaty with Russia, Britain had one with Japan)

- Dogger Bank Incident: the Russians opened fire on British fishermen and claimed that 2 Japanese torpedo boats were hiding among the fishermen – they refused to apologize

- public furore in Britain was considerable – in the end the Russians agreed to investigation

- changes in the army and navy were taking place

- the Russo-Japanese War did not trigger British military reform, but it endorsed the need for it

- PM Balfour appointed himself chairman of the Committee of Imperial Defence

- change had to begin at the top

- the sub-committee of three consisted of Colonel Sir George Clarke, Admiral Sir ‘Jackie’ Fisher and Lord Esher, who was a close friend of the King

- an Army Council was created for the army (the commander-in-chief was pensioned off)

- the most radical reform took place in the Royal Navy

- 1904: Fisher became the First Sea Lord: within 6 years he scrapped 150 vessels, overhauled the training system & redeployed Britain’s naval strength to counter the growing German naval threat

- the German fleet-building programme had a single objective: to defeat the Royal Navy


- Balfour failed to act on party discipline - the debate over tariff reform & free trade continued

- Churchill was taking advice from the Liberal David Lloyd George

- 18 April: Churchill agreed to stand as a free trade candidate for Northwest Manchester and to be supported by the Liberals

- 31 May: Churchill finally crossed the floor and took his seat on the Liberal benches

- 12 March: the first mainline electric train went into service between Southport and Liverpool

- by 1904 there were so many cars that number plates had to be introduced

- Scotland Yard started its fingerprint section & by the end of 1904 had a collection of 70,000 prints

- the population was increasing at a rate of about 1 per cent a year

- Britain now had more ‘conurbations’ than any other country in Europe.

- one in every 40 people of England & Wales was ‘on the Parish’


1905:

- British newspapers were filled with reports of violence and repression in Russia

- Britain, France & Germany had the common aim of maintaining international stability

- by September the war was over and the Russians were forced to pull out of Manchuria and to recognize Japanese claims in Korea


- Balfour’s government: Unionist government formed of Tories and Liberal Unionists

- the party was split

- Balfour proposed the closer commercial ties with the colonies that Chamberlain had always wanted

- when it came to voting, he made a tactical error: he ordered his own people not to vote and led them out of the Chamber - he wrongly judged that the Liberals were likely to split on Irish Home Rule

- but: Campbell-Bannerman had out-manoeuvred him – there was no split in the party, because Campbell got the support of the men who mattered (his Liberal opponent: Lord Rosebery)

- Balfour resigned

- 5 December: Campbell-Bannerman (69) became Liberal prime minister

- first Cabinet meeting: Asquith (Chancellor of the Exchequer), Herbert Gladstone (Home Secretary), Sir Edward Grey (Foreign Secretary), Earl of Elgin (Colonial Secretary), Haldane (Secretary of War)

- Lloyd George brought in the Merchant Shipping Act of 1906 & the Patents Act in 1907 and he set up the Port of London Authority

- the Londoners were endangered by an outbreak of typhus


1906:

- election: Liberal triumph

- the reaction against tariff reform was overwhelming and even Balfour lost his seat

- the political balance shifted (400 Liberals, 157 Unionists & 30 Labour members Labour
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11

Похожие:

Lee : this sceptred isle: the twentieth century icon13 Foundations of Twentieth-Century Performance 16

Lee : this sceptred isle: the twentieth century iconTwentieth century fox presents

Lee : this sceptred isle: the twentieth century icon13 Foundations of Twentieth-Century Performance 16

Lee : this sceptred isle: the twentieth century iconTwentieth-Century American Politics and Diplomacy

Lee : this sceptred isle: the twentieth century iconApproved Anatomies of Empire: Race, Evolution and Scientific Networks in the Twentieth Century

Lee : this sceptred isle: the twentieth century iconAmerican public schooling and european immigrants in the early twentieth century: a post-revisionist synthesis

Lee : this sceptred isle: the twentieth century iconThe Culture of Critique An Evolutionary Analysis of Jewish Involvement in Twentieth-Century Intellectual and Political Movements

Lee : this sceptred isle: the twentieth century iconMedicine of twentieth century, especially its second half, was transformed by the discovery of antibiotics and other bioactive secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms

Lee : this sceptred isle: the twentieth century iconThe instructor who turns to this last section of the instructor’s manual, devoted to the twentieth century, will either be fresh and sparkling as a new

Lee : this sceptred isle: the twentieth century iconThe birth of cinema at the beginning of the twentieth century is intimately connected with the development of the modern metropolis. The energy of cinema the

Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
Библиотека


База данных защищена авторским правом ©lib.znate.ru 2014
обратиться к администрации
Библиотека
Главная страница