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 Wen-Lian Hsu

Professor, Research Fellow

Institute of Information Science , Academia Sinica

Taipei, Taiwan, R. O. C.

Phone: +886(02)2788-3799 ext. 1804




Wen-Lian Hsu received a B.S. from the Department of Mathematics, National Taiwan University in 1973. He received an M.S. and a Ph.D. in operations research from Cornell University in 1978 and 1980, respectively. From 1979 to 1980, he worked as a research associate in the Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE) at Universite Catholique de Louvain, Belgium. In 1980, he joined Northwestern University as an assistant professor and was promoted to tenured associate professor in 1986. He joined the Institute of Information Science as a research fellow in 1989.

Dr. Hsu's earlier research while in Northwestern University is focused on graph algorithms. His main contribution is on perfect graphs and special classes of intersection graphs. Most of his publications appear in JACM and SIAM J. Computing. Recently, he invented the PC-tree data structure to design very efficient algorithms in planar graphs and intersection graphs. In the meantime, he has applied similar techniques to tackle computational problems in Biology such as error-tolerant algorithms in DNA sequence analysis. 

Right after joining the institute in 1989, he initiated the project ``intelligent Chinese phonetic input system'' (in cooperation with K. J, Chen), aiming at resolving a major bottleneck in the computerization of Chinese language -- the input method. A software resulted from this project, 自然輸入法(GOING), achieved a hit ratio close to 96% and was selected as one of the ten best Chinese computer products of Taiwan in 1993. This software has been widely used in Taiwan and the number of downloads in PC Home web station is close to 600,000. Later, he moved into the research of Intelligent Agent on the Internet, and produced the Math. Problem Solving Agent in 1997, and a Chinese natural language Q & A system, @skbots, in 1999. He is currently working on DNA sequence analysis, Genome knowledge base and intelligent knowledge management systems. 

Dr. Hsu has published in various top-notch journals in discrete mathematics, operations research and computer science. He has been invited to deliver lectures in many international conferences. Dr. Hsu received the distinguished research award from the National Science Council in 1991, 1994, 1996 and was elected as a distinguished research fellow by the NSC in 1998. He was the recipient of the first『李國鼎穿石獎』 for his contribution in natural language processing systems. He has been the conference chairs of ISAAC'91 and COCOON'98 and has been involved in the editorship of the following journals: Managing Editor of Journal of Information Science (1995-2001), International Journal of Foundation of Computer Science (1993-2002), Information Processing Letters (2001-). He has been the president of the Artificial Intelligence Society in Taiwan (2001-2002).



Cornell University, Operations Research, 1980

(Advisor - George L. Nemhauser)


Cornell University, Operations Research, 1978


National Taiwan University, Mathematics, 1973




Professor, Research Fellow, Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica.


Deputy Director, Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica


Visiting Professor, CSLI center, Stanford University.


Associate Professor (with tenure), Department of IE/MS,Northwestern University.


Assistant Professor, Department of IE/MS,Northwestern University.


Postdoctoral Fellow, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics(CORE), Universite Catholique de Louvain.


Research Assistant, Cornell University.


Teaching Assistant, Cornell University.


Research Interests

Our main research topic is natural language understanding. Nearly all of the following systems require certain understanding capability to achieve high precision rates: semantic search on the web, Chinese voice input and output, spelling checker and machine translation. Our Chinese input system--GOING, which automatically translates a chu-in sequence into characters with a hit ratio close to 96%, is widely used in Taiwan. It received the Distinguished Chinese Information Product Award(中文傑出資訊產品獎)in 1993. In PC Home software download area, GOING has been downloaded 600,000times. Within the top 10 download software, it is the only one developed domestically.

Our model for concept understanding can utilize heterogeneous knowledge representation systems. We have extended our model to that on Internet intelligent agents, especially on the database agents. These software agents will become indispensable in the semantic search engine and the electronic commerce on the Internet. Another direction we are moving into is the development of educational tutoring systems. We have successfully implemented a system that can understand and solve (and explain how so solve) the mathematics word problems of primary school (grade 3).

Our major achievement is the development of a knowledge representation kernel, InfoMap, for the semantic analysis of natural language, which can be applied to a wide variety of application systems. We are currently utilizing this kernel to develop an Intelligent Knowledge Management System over the World Wide Web. There are several technology transfer programs currently going on with private companies.

In DNA sequence analysis, we have been studying the physical mapping and the clone assembly problem. When the experimental error is within 15%, we have developed an error-tolerant algorithm for the clone assembly problem (as well as the physical mapping problem) that can determine the relative positions of each clone (respectively, each probe) given the clone overlapping relationships. By combining our knowledge management tools, InfoMap, and natural language agent, we are currently constructing a Question Answering system for genomic and proteomic knowledge. We shall further extend this system to help biologist to execute certain natural language scripts automatically in their dry labs. Finally, we shall utilize InfoMap to facilitate the accurate search of various relationships in biological literature.



  • W. L. Hsu and R. McConnell, "PC-Trees" to appear in Handbook of Data Structures and Applications, Dinesh P Mehta and Sartaj Sahni ed., (2003).

  • W. L. Hsu, “An Efficient Implementation of the PC-Tree Algorithm of Shih & Hsu's Planarity Test,” Technical Report, Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica, (2003).W. L. Hsu and R. McConnell, “PC-trees and circular-ones arrangements” Theoretical Computer Science 296(1), (2003), 59-74.

  • W. L. Hsu, “PC-Trees and Maximal Planar Subgraphs,” Keynote speech, ICS’02, Hualien, (2002).

  • W. L. Hsu, "A simple test for the consecutive ones property", Journal of Algorithms 43, (2002), 1-16.

  • W. L. Hsu, “PC-trees vs. PQ-trees,” invited talk, Workshop on Graph Structures and Algorithms, also, appeared in Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2108, (2001), 207-217.

  • W. L. Hsu and T. H. Ma, "Fast and simple algorithms for recognizing chordal comparability graphs and interval gragh," SIAM J. Comput. 28, (1999), 1004-1020.

  • W. K. Shih and W. L. Hsu, "A new planarity test," Theoretical Computer Science 223, (1999), 179-191.

  • W. L. Hsu, "Perfect graphs," Advances in the Theory of Computation and Computational Mathematics 1, (1996), 81-122.

  • W. L. Hsu,, "On-line recognition of interval graphs", Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1120, (1996), 27-38.

  • W. L. Hsu, "O(mn) algorithms for the recognition and isomorphism problems on circular-arc graphs," SIAM J. Comput 24, (1995), 411-439.

  • W. L. Hsu, "Finding maximal planar subgraphs in linear time", Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1004, (1995), 352-361.

  • W. L. Hsu and J. P. Spinrad, "Independent sets in circular-arc graphs," J. Algorithms 19, (1995), 145-160.

  • W. K. Shih and W. L. Hsu, "A simple test for planar graphs," Proceedings of the International Workshop on Discrete Math. and Algorithms, University of Hong Kong, (1993), 110-122.

  • K. H. Tsai and W. L. Hsu, "Fast algorithms for the minimum dominating set problem on permutation graphs," Algorithmica 9, (1993), 601-614.

  • W. L. Hsu, "A new test for interval graphs", Lecture Notes in Computer Science 657, (1992), 11-16.

  • W. K. Shih, W. L. Hsu and T. C. Chen, "An O(n2logn) algorithm for the Hamiltonian cycle problem on circular-arc graphs," SIAM J. Comput 21, (1992), 1026-1046.

  • W. L. Hsu and K. H. Tsai, "Linear time algorithms on circular-arc graphs," Information Processing Letters 40, (1991), 123-129.

  • W. K. Shih and W. L. Hsu, "An approximation algorithm for coloring circular-arc graphs," SIAM conference on Discrete Mathematics, San Francisco, (1990).

  • W. K. Shih and W. L. Hsu, "An O(nlogn + mloglogn) algorithm for finding a maximum weight clique in circular-arc graphs," Infor. Process. Letters, (1989), 129-134.

  • W. K. Shih and W. L. Hsu, "An O(n1.5) algorithm for coloring proper circular-arc graphs," Discrete Applied Math 25, (1989), 321-323

  • K. H. Tsai and W. L. Hsu, "A linear time algorithm for the maximum two track assignment problem," proc. 27th Allerton Conference on Communication, Control and Computing, 291-300, (1989).

  • C. Gabor, W. L. Hsu and K. Supowit, "Recognizing circle graphs in polynomial time," J. Assoc. Comput. Machin., (1989), 435-473.

  • W. L. Hsu, "The coloring and maximum independent set problems on planar perfect graphs," J. Assoc. Comput. Machin., (1988), 535-563.

  • W. L. Hsu, "Recognizing planar perfect graphs," J. Assoc. Comput. Machin. 34 (1987), 255-288.

  • W. L. Hsu, "Decomposition of perfect graphs," J. Combin. Theory (B) 43, (1987), 70-94.

  • W. L. Hsu, "Coloring planar perfect graphs by decomposition," Combinatorica 6 (4), (1986), 381-385.

  • W. L. Hsu, "Maximum weight clique algorithms for circle graphs and circular-arc graphs," SIAM J. Computing 14, (1985), 224-231.

  • W. L. Hsu, "Efficient algorithms for the maximum weight clique problem on circular-arc graphs and circle graphs," Progress in Graph Theory, J. A. Bondy and U. S. R. Murty ed., (1984), 335-345.

  • W. L. Hsu, "Berge's strong perfect graph conjecture on special graphs: A Survey," Annals of Discrete Math. 21, (1984), 107-117.

  • W. L. Hsu, "Approximation algorithms for the assembly line crew scheduling problem," Math. of Operations Research 9, (1984), 376-383.

  • W. L. Hsu and G. L. Nemhauser, "Algorithms for maximum weight cliques, minimum weighted clique covers and cardinality colorings of claw-free perfect graphs," Annals of Discrete Math. 21, (1984), 317-329.

  • Naamad, W. L. Hsu and D. T. Lee, "On the maximum empty rectangle problem," Discrete Applied Math. 8, (1984), 267-277.

  • W. L. Hsu, "On the general feasibility test of scheduling lot sizes for several products on one machine," Management Science 29, (1983), 93-105.

  • W. L. Hsu, "The distance-domination numbers of trees," Operations Research Letters 1, (3), (1982), 96-100.

  • W. L. Hsu and G. L. Nemhauser, "A polynomial algorithm for the minimum weighted clique cover problem on claw-free perfect graphs," (with G. L. Nemhauser), Discrete Math. 38, (1982), 65-71.

  • W. L. Hsu, Y. Ikura and G. L. Nemhauser, "A polynomial algorithm for maximum weighted vertex packing on graphs without long odd cycles," Math. Prog. 20, (1981), 225-232.

  • W. L. Hsu, "How to color claw-free perfect graphs," Annals of Discrete Math. 11, (1981), 189-197.

  • W. L. Hsu and G. L. Nemhauser, "Algorithm for minimum covering by cliques and maximum cliques in claw-free perfect graphs," Discrete Math. 37, (1981), 181-191.

  • W. L. Hsu and G. L. Nemhauser, "Easy and hard bottleneck location problems," Discrete Applied Math. 1, (1979), 209-215. BioinformaticsK. P. Wu, H. N. Lin, T. Y. Sung, and W. L. Hsu, “A New Similarity Measure among Protein Sequences,” Proceedings of IEEE CSB2003 Computer Society Bioinformatics Conference, Stanford, CA, (2003).

  • W. F. Lu and W. L. Hsu. “A Test for the Consecutive Ones Property on Noisy Data,” to appear in Journal of Computational Biology, also appeared in Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1276.

  • W. L. Hsu, W. F. Lu, "On clone assembly algorithms - an error tolerant test for interval graph recognition", Proc. IEEE International Joint Symposia on Intelligence and Systems, (1998), 118-125.

  • W. L. Hsu, “Fault Tolerant DNA computing,” invited talk, DIMACS Workshop, Hong Kong, (1998).

  • W. L. Hsu and W. F. Lu, “From Satellite DNA to HTML table understanding,” invited talk, CTS Workshop on Combinatorics and Algorithms, Taipei, (1998).

  • Learning TechnologyL.Y., Tu, W. L. Hsu and S. H., Wu, “A Cognitive Student Model – An Ontological Approach,” ICCE’02, Auckland, (2002).

  • G. Hsieh, T. H. Tsai, W. L. Hsu, D. Wible, “Exploiting Knowledge Representation in an Intelligent Tutoring System for English Lexical Errors,” ICCE’02, Auckland, (2002).

  • C. W. Hue C. H. Kao, M. Lo, L. Y. Tu and W. L. Hsu , “NTUs: An Intelligent Tutorial System Fosters Number Concepts Through Computational Scaffolding,” ICCE’02, Auckland, (2002).

  • G. Lin, W. K. Wong, W. L. Hsu, S. H. Wu, “Knowledge-Based Understanding of Simple Text about Geometry,” GCCCE’01, (2001).

  • W. L. Hsu, “Interactive CAI in Natural Language,” Keynote Speech, International Conference on Computer Assisted Instruction and Internet Computing, Taipei, (2000).

  • Y. K. Wang, Y. S. Chen and W. L. Hsu, “Empirical study of mandarin Chinese discourse analysis,” Proceedings. of the 10th IEEE International Conference on Tools with AI, (1998).

  • Y. K. Wang, Y. S. Chen and W. L. Hsu, “A knowledge-based approach for natural language processing,” Technical Report, (1998).

  • Y. K. Wang, W. L. Hsu and Y. S. Chen, “The anaphoric expressions of Chinese algebraic word problem,” Proceedings of the 1998 International Symposium on Multimedia Information Processing, (1998).

  • Wing-Kwong Wong, W. L. Hsu, Yi-Shiou Chen, Yuan-Kai Wang, Shun-Tao Pai, “Natural language educational agents in a networked Chinese logo learning environment”, Proceedings of ICCE’98, (1998).

Natural Language Processing

  • Jia-Lin Tsai, Wen-Lian Hsu and Jeng-Woei Su, “Word Sense Disambiguation and Sense-Based NV Event Frame Identifier”, International Journal of Computational Linguistics & Chinese Language Processing 7, (2002), 29-46.

  • J. L. Tsai and W. L. Hsu, “Applying an NVEF Word-Pair Identifier to the Chinese Syllable-to-Word Conversion Problem,” COLING’02, Taipei, (2002).

  • W. L. Hsu, Y. S. Chen and S. H. Wu, “Event Identification Based on the Information Map - INFOMAP,” NLPKE’01, Tucson, (2001).

  • W. L. Hsu and Yi-Shiou Chen, "On Phoneme-to-Character Conversion Systems in Chinese Processing," invited paper, Journal of Chinese Institute of Engineers 5, (1999), 573-579.

  • C. C. Chen and W. L. Hsu, "A document similarity measurement without dictionaries," Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Information Retrieval with Asian Languages IRAL'99, (1999).

  • W. L. Hsu, “Elementary school Math. tutoring agent”, Proceedings of Agent Technology Workshop, (1997).

  • W. L. Hsu,『模擬人類理解的新嘗試』,張昭鼎紀念研討會,國立中正大學,(1996).W. L. Hsu, W. K. Shih and P. H. Yeh, "Object oriented concept representation", Proceeding of ICCPOL'95, (1995).

  • W. L. Hsu, “On the design of a computer that speak fluent Chinese,” Proceedings of RAMs’95, (1995).

  • W. L. Hsu, "Chinese parsing in a phoneme-to-character conversion system based on semantic pattern matching," International Journal on Computer Processing of Chinese and Oriental Languages 40, (1995),227-236.

  • W. L. Hsu、陳克健,「自然智慧型輸入系統的語意分析─脈絡會意法」, Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Cognitive Aspects of the Chinese Language, (1993), 527-540.

  • Fu Chang, Ying-Chu Chen, Hon-Son Don, W. L. Hsu, and Ching-I Kao, "Stroke segmentation as a basis for structural matching of Chinese characters", Second International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, (1993).

Agent and Ontology

  • S. H. Wu and W. L. Hsu, “AutoMap: A Semi-Automatic Ontology Acquisition Tool for Chinese Corpus,” COLING’02, Taipei, (2002).

  • W. L. Hsu, 「智慧型問答搜尋技術」,邀請演講,中文搜尋引擎技術研討會,台北,(2001).W. L. Hsu, S. H. Wu, L. Y. Tu and M. Shia, “Applying dialogue systems to Student Model,” GCCCE’01, (2001).

  • Shih-Hung Wu, Min-Yuh Day, W. L. Hsu, “FAQ-Centered Organizational Memory,” IJCAI’01 Workshop on Knowledge Management and Organization Memory, Seattle, (2001).

  • C. L. Sung, W. L. Hsu, S. H. Wu and W. K. Shih, “The Design and Implementation of Intelligent Desktop Agent,” Proceedings of TAAI’01, Kaoshiung, (2001)

  • H. L. Wang, S. H. Wu, I. C. Wang, C. L. Sung, W. L. Hsu, W. K. Shih, “Semantic Search on Internet Tabular Information Extraction for Answering Queries,” Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, Washington DC, (2000).

  • W. L. Hsu,“Simulating Human Intelligence,” Keynote Speech, Fifth Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Taipei, (2000).

  • W. L. Hsu, Yi-Shiou Chen and Yuan-Kai Wang, “Natural language agents – An agent society on the Internet,” Proceedings of PRIMA’99, (1999).

  • W. L. Hsu, 「網際網路的檢索與知識管理」,專題講座,National Computer Symposium, Taipei, (1999).H. L. Wang, W. K. Shih, C. N. Hsu, Y. S. Chen, Y. L. Wang and W. L. Hsu, “Personal Navigating Agent,” Proceedings of AGENT’99, (1999).

  • W. L. Hsu, Yi-Shiou Chen and Yuan-Kai Wang, “A Context sensitive model for concept understanding” Proceedings of ITALLC’98, (1998), 161-169.



Professor, Research Fellow iconKaren Meier Reeds received her Ph. D. in the history of science from Harvard University. She has been a Mellon Postdoctoral Fellow at Bryn Mawr College and currently is a Research Fellow at the University of California, Berkeley

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