Product/System Development Propulsion (Earth Based)




НазваниеProduct/System Development Propulsion (Earth Based)
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UNIT

-

Lesson 3




Lesson Title:

Product/System Development - Propulsion (Earth Based)




Lesson Duration:





Standards: Students will:



develop the abilities to apply the design process (STL-11)



formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them (NCTM-14)



develop abilities of technological design. (AAAS-E)


Benchmarks:



Develop and produce a product or system using a design process. (STL-11, Q)



Understand the differences among various kinds of studies and which types of inferences can legitimately be drawn from each. (NCTM-14, J)



Know the characteristics of well-designed studies, including the role of randomization in surveys and experiments. (NCTM-14, K)



Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are abased on data. (NCTM-16)



Evaluate final solutions and communication observation, processes, and results of the entire design process, using verbal, graphic, quantitative, virtual, and written means, in addition to three-dimensional models. (STL-11, R)



Understand how sample statistics reflect the values of population parameters and use sampling distributions as the basis for informal inference. (NCTM-16, G)



Write clear, step-by-step instructions for conducting investigations, operating something, or following a procedure (AAAS-65)



Use tables, charts, and graphs in making arguments and claims in oral and written presentations. (AAAS-65Q)


Learning Objectives: Students will:

1.

apply the 12 steps for engineering design process in the development of a product or system to address NASA lunar exploration propulsion problems

2.

apply management/quality assurance standards and processes in the development of a product or system to address NASA lunar exploration propulsion problems

3.

apply Total Quality Assurance strategies for all ‘planning’ as part of project management to address NASA lunar exploration propulsion problems

4.

apply Total Quality Assurance strategies for all ‘organizing’ as part of project management to address NASA lunar exploration propulsion problems

5.

apply Total Quality Assurance strategies for all ‘controlling’ as part of project management to address NASA lunar exploration propulsion problems

6.

apply quality assurance for all group or team work as part of project management to address NASA lunar exploration propulsion problems

7.

apply quality assurance for all independent and team communications as part of project management to address NASA lunar exploration propulsion problems

8.

apply quality assurance for the use of all tools, machines, materials, and processes during the manufacture of a product or system to address NASA lunar exploration propulsion problems

9.

Communicate information formally, including significant data using current NASA presentation strategies

10.

work collaboratively and safely in the solution of specific engineering design problems.


Student Assessment Tools and/or Methods:

Assessment Instrument - Prototype

Category

Below Target

At Target

Above Target

Prototype

Concept


Loosely based on

group's research.

Major specification

errors present, but few in number. Little consideration

given to facilitate

construction,

operation or

maintenance.

Clearly based upon group's research.

Minor specification

errors or omissions

present. Evidence

of consideration

given to con-struction, maintenance and

operation.

Clearly based upon group's research. Plans are complete and technically specific. Ease of

construction, operation, and

maintenance are

incorporated in plans. Plans well documented as

technical drawings with dimensions and tolerances.

Prototype

Construction

Constructed to be functional, but not well executed.

Numerous

workmanship

defects present.

Adequately

constructed, but

with some obvious defects. Strict adherence to design notes/plans not observed.

Constructed in a highly professional manner, tree

of workmanship defects. No temporary 'jury rigs" present. Constructed in

accordance of dimensions and tolerances specified by

design notes.

Aesthetics

No attempt was

made to address the appearance of the prototype.

Prototype is neat,

clean, and

uncluttered.

Prototype appears to be professionally constructed.

It includes colors, logos, or other visual additions

which give additional professional appearance.

Prototype

Test

Planning

Rudimentary tests

planned, pro-cedures in-complete, or test sequence illogical or impossible.

Not all functions are to be tested. Test procedures completed. Superfluous tests

performed. Test plan reveals full review of prototype integrated with prototype

construction.

All functions of the

prototype have test procedures written. Test procedures include the details mentioned in the

Background Narrative.

Sequencing of tests on prototype sub-systems is logical and does not interfere with construction progress of prototype.

Testing

the

Prototype

Minor deviations

occur regarding

procedures. Data is missed, or testers unfamiliar with what they are doing and/or why.

Test procedures are followed. Correct data is collected. Tests stopped if unsafe conditions occur.

Tests procedures are followed. Correct data is

collected. Tests occur at the appropriate times during prototype construction.

Persons con-ducting the tests are knowledgeable regarding the reason for the test, the reason for each. step in the procedure, and the

significance of data collected.

Evaluating

the

Tests

Minimal con-clusions drawn

from test results.

Data collected, but not evaluated.

Test results are

analyzed, some oversights evident.

Reason for failure

identified, but not investigated to high level.

Test results are compared with acceptable (expected)

results. Success or failure determined. Reasons for

failure, if applicable, are identified and investigated to deep level.

Prototype

Improvement


Test evaluation

results in no

suggestions for

improvement or no research done

along lines of

possible improve-ment.

Test evaluation

results in

suggestions for

improvement, but

no research

conducted. Little

additional

documentation.

Test evaluation results in

research, which results in ideas for improvement.

Improvement(s) made as

resources permit.

Improvements documented

as revisions to drawings/plans.

Comment

Comment

Comment

Comment



Assessment Instrument - Engineering Design - 12 Steps

Category

Below Target

At Target

Above Target

Defining the Problem

Rephrases the problem with limited clarity.

Rephrases the problem clearly.

Rephrases the problem clearly and precisely.

Brainstorming

Contributes few or implausible ideas.

Contributes a plausible idea.

Contributes multiple plausible ideas.

Researching and Generating Ideas

Contributes ideas but without documented research.

Produces incomplete sketches.

Does not present a concept.

Contributes one plausible idea based on documented research.

Produces marginally accurate pictorial and orthographic sketches of design concepts.

Contributes multiple plausible ideas based on documented research.

Produces accurate pictorial and orthographic sketches of design concepts.

Identifying Criteria and Specifying Constraints

Does not restate the criteria clearly and fails to identify constraints.

Restates the criteria clearly and identifies several constraints.

Restates the criteria clearly and precisely and identifies many constraints.

Exploring Possibilities

Inadequately analyzes the pluses and minuses of a variety of possible solutions.

Satisfactorily analyzes the pluses and minuses of a variety of possible solutions.

Thoroughly analyzes the pluses and minuses of a variety of possible solutions.

Selecting an Approach

Selection of solution is not based on consideration of criteria and constraints.

Selects a promising solution based on criteria and constraints.

Selects a promising solution based on a thorough analysis criteria and constraints with high quality.

Developing a Design Proposal

Design proposal is inadequate lacking pertinent information.

Design proposal is adequate containing all pertinent elements.

Design proposal is accurate and comprehensive.

Making a Model or Prototype

Prototype meets the task criteria to a limited extent.

Prototype meets the task criteria.

Prototype meets the task criteria in insightful ways.

Testing and Evaluating the Design Using Specifications

Testing and evaluation processes are inadequate.

Testing and evaluation processes are adequate for refining the problem solution.

Testing processes are innovative.

Refining the Design

Refinement based on testing and evaluation is not evident.

Refinements made based on testing and evaluation results.

Significant improvement in the design is made based on prototype testing and evaluation.

Creating or Making It

Finished solution (product) fails to meet specifications.

Finished solution (product) meets specifications.

Finished solution (product) exceeds specifications.

Communicating Processes and Results

Solution presented with limited accuracy.

Limited supporting evidence on how the solution meets the task criteria.

Solution presented accurately.

Some supporting evidence on how the solution meets the task criteria.

Solution presented concisely with clarity and accuracy Extensive supporting evidence on how the solution meets the task criteria

Comment

Comment

Comment

Comment




Rubric for Project Management

Category

Below Target

At Target

Above Target

Planning

Little or no attempt at strategic or operational planning. Few, if any planning tools were used to accomplish financial, personnel, product performance, product forecasting, product life-cycle, or qualitative or quantitative analysis.

Effective use of strategic and operational planning for entire project. Appropriate planning tools were used to accomplish financial, personal, product analysis, forecasting, predictions using both qualitative and quantitative assessment strategies.

Outstanding examples of well developed planning tools for the entire project were evident and applied in both critical and creative ways. All areas of project management, including financial, personal, product development and analysis, forecasting and predicting using both qualitative and quantitative methods.

Organizing

There was minimal attempt to generate an organizational structure related to the following areas: design teams, span of control, specific responsibilities, special-ization of work or tasks, work arrangements and relationships. Leadership roles were unclear or not identified appropriately. Leadership roles were poorly defined or not present at all.

Effective use of appropriate organiza-tional structures which addressed all critical areas: design teams, span of control, specific responsibilities, special-ization of work or tasks, work arrangements and relationships. Leadership roles were clearly defined and functioned effectively.

Outstanding organizational structure was employed through-out the project. Creative examples of organiza-tional tools were employed to direct all areas: design teams, span of control, specific responsibilities, special-ization of work or tasks, work arrangements and relationships. Exemplary leadership roles were exhibited.

Controlling

Activities, strategies, and techniques reflective of contempo-rary project control were not evident. There was little attempt to establish industry standard practices to regulate, access and evaluate results for securing maximum productivity and reduce unacceptable perform-ance. There was very little attempt to establish and use accepted control techniques for people, process, or product.

Activities, strategies, and techniques reflective of contempo-rary project control were used effectively and appropriately. Industry standard practices to regulate, access work and evaluate results to secure maximum productivity and reduce unacceptable perform-ance were designed and used effectively throughout the project. This included the collection, analysis and storing of pertinent data, compare perform-ance against standards, generate detailed reports based on measurement tools. Limits of tolerance were established for people, process, and product with adequate clarity, but lacking some quality in detail and presenta-tion.

Activities, strategies, and techniques reflective of contempo-rary project control were used in critical and creative ways. Industry standard practices to regulate, access work and evaluate results to secure maximum productivity and reduce unacceptable perform-ance were designed and used to generate outstanding perform-ance data throughout the project. This included the collection, analysis and storing of pertinent data, compare performance against standards, generate detailed reports based on measurement tools. Limits of tolerance were clearly established for people, process, and product.

Comment

Comment

Comment

Comment




Rubric for Quality Assurance

Category

Below Target

At Target

Above Target

Planning


Little attempt at establishing critical processes and roles to ensure quality for all planning phases of the project. Critical areas such as quality standards for people, process and product were not clear in project planning, training to ensure quality for people, process, and product development, goal setting in all planning documents, quality councils, reporting timelines with milestones and the use of industry standard techniques such as, but not limited to; quality function deployment, criteria trees, needs metrics, milestone schedules, Gantt charts, house of quality charts.

Effective identification and use of critical processes and roles to ensure quality for all planning phases of the project. Critical areas such as quality standards for people, process and product were present and clear in project planning, training to ensure quality for people, process, and product development, goal setting in all planning documents, quality councils, reporting timelines with mile-stones and the use of industry standard techniques such as, but not limited to; quality function deployment, criteria trees, needs metrics, milestone schedules, Gantt charts, house of quality charts. Clearly defined roles and strategies were integrated into all planning and presented before project was initiated.

Outstanding identification and use of critical processes and roles to ensure quality for all planning phases of the project. Critical areas such as quality standards for people, process and product were present, clear and included extraordinary detail and focus in project planning, training to ensure quality for people, process, and product development, goal setting in all planning documents, quality councils, reporting timelines with mile-stones and the use of industry standard techniques such as, but not limited to; quality function deployment, criteria trees, needs metrics, milestone schedules, Gantt charts, house of quality charts. Clearly defined roles and strategies were integrated into all planning and presented before project was initiated.

Organizing


The organization of work tasks, assign-ments, and responsibil-ities was unclear or poorly attempted. There was little evidence of quality assurance with respect to the deploy-ment of people to complete specific tasks related to product design and develop-ment, production processes, manage-ment processes and all industry standard techniques used to ensure structure and organization for the entire project.

The organization of work tasks, assign-ments, and responsibil-ities was effectively accomplished. There was sufficient evidence of quality assurance with respect to the deploy-ment of people to complete specific tasks related to product design and develop-ment, production processes, manage-ment processes and all industry standard techniques used to ensure structure and organization for the entire project. Organization docu-ments were submitted in a timely fashion with adequate detail.

The organization of work tasks, assign-ments, and responsibil-ities was superbly completed. There was significant and exemplary evidence of quality assurance with respect to the deploy-ment of people to complete specific tasks related to product design and develop-ment, production processes, manage-ment processes and all industry standard techniques used to ensure structure and organization for the entire project. Organization docu-ments were submitted in a timely fashion with outstanding detail and reflected the most contemporary industry practices for ensuring quality in all organiza-tion and structure.

Controlling


Quality assurance techniques or strategies were unclear or simply not used to ensure any appropriate level of control with respect to people, process or product. There were very few instances or in some cases no attempt to employ industry standard practices to establish standards for controlling tasks, measuring perform-ance, evaluating performance and optimizing productivity for people, processes and product(s).

Quality assurance techniques or strategies were effectively designed and used to ensure appropriate levels of control with respect to people, process and product. There were numerous instances to employ industry standard practices for controlling tasks, measuring performance, evalu-ating performance and optimizing productivity for people, processes and product(s). Documentation was clearly developed and offered adequate evidence of appropriate control of people, processes and product design and develop-ment.

Quality assurance techniques or strategies were designed and used to in an exemplary fashion to ensure significantly high levels of control with respect to people, process and product. There were numerous creative instances to employ industry standard practices for controlling tasks, measuring performance, evalu-ating performance and optimizing productivity for people, processes and product(s). Documentation was clearly developed and offered exemplary evidence for the control of people, processes, and product design and development.

Comment

Comment

Comment

Comment



Assessment Instrument - Brief Constructed Response (BCR) - All Assigned Topics

Category

Below Target

At Target

Above Target

Understanding

Response demonstrates an implied, partial, or superficial under-standing of the text and/or the question.

Response demonstrates an understanding of the text.

Response demonstrates an understanding of the complexities of the text at a deep level of understanding.

Focus

Lacks transitional information to show the relationship of the support to the question.

Addresses the demands of the question.

Exceeds the demands of the question.

Use of Related Information

Uses minimal information from the text to clarify or extend meaning.

Uses some expressed or implied information from the text to clarify or extend meaning.

Effectively uses expressed or implied information from the text to clarify or extend meaning in all statements.

Comment

Comment

Comment

Comment



Assessment Instrument - Class Seminar for All Scheduled Meetings

Category

Below Target

At Target

Above Target

Participation

Unacceptable interaction and participation with numerous interruptions or off-topic discussions.

Adequate participation offering valuable comments at times, with only occasional interruption of others

Active level of participation, offering solid comments and ideas but not over-bearing, allowing others to engage in discussion.

Contribution



Rarely offers appropriate comments and seeks to disrupt the meeting.

Comments are appropriate and on topic, with some ideas of high value, enabling good discussion of seminar topic.

Comments and ideas are of high value and enable more intense discussion of seminar topic.

Cooperation



Exhibited little courtesy towards others through inappropriate comments and behavior during meeting.

Appropriate level of courtesy towards others enabling good discussion on seminar topic and little disruption observed.

High level of courtesy towards others facilitating engaging and topical discussion on selected topics.

Topic Focus



Not focused on topic and seeks to disrupt with inappropriate questions and comments throughout the meeting.

Comments usually on target and appropriate, including questions and topical discourse during entire meeting.

Comments are always focused on seminar topic, including questions and discourse with others during entire meeting.

Comment

Comment

Comment

Comment



Assessment Instrument - Business Letter - Various Requests

Category

Below Target

At Target

Above Target

Mechanics


Header, salutation,

and signature

contain inaccurate

information or are

incomplete.

Header, salutation, and signature

accurate.

Header, salutation, and signature in full

accordance with that

specified by accepted

business format.

Author

Identity


Author or

organization

missing.

Author identity

and organization

stated.

The author has

properly identified

him/her self and the

organization to which he/she belongs.

Content


Purpose of letter

is questionable.

No direct action

or information

requested.

Purpose of letter

stated.

Purpose of letter

clearly stated.

Language is direct

and to the point. No

excessive wording

present.

Grammar


One major or

several minor

errors present.

No errors.

Flawless, with exceptional use of grammar.

Referenced

Communication

(if applicable)


This letter follows

another. . ., which

refers to previous

contact, but does

not fully identify

such.

This letter follows another. . ., which is identified by name, date, and context of previous communication.

This letter follows

another letter, phone

call, or e-mail, which

is clearly identified

by name, date, and

context of previous

communication.

Comment

Comment

Comment

Comment



Assessment Instrument - Extended Constructed Response (ECR) for All Assigned Topics

Category

Below Target

At Target

Above Target

Context and Argument

Context inappropriate.

Argument unsatisfactory.

Context appropriate.

Argument satisfactory.

Context appropriate.

Argument satisfactory.

Clearly stated thesis included.

Evidence

Evidence is largely missing or generalized.

Ample and appropriate evidence provided.

Abundant, relevant specifics (names, events, legislation, court decisions, etc.) provided.

Includes obscure, but important evidence. Thorough chronology.

Analysis

Minimal analysis or fallacious reasoning.


Organizes argument and uses data to support conclusions.

Recognizes causation, change, and continuity.

Well-reasoned cause and effect arguments.

Fully explained conclusions.

Refers to views of others.

Historical

Accuracy

Many errors.

May have a few errors. Mistakes may slightly hinder argument, but do not detract from the overall accuracy.

Virtually error free; minor mistakes do not compromise argument.

Thoroughness

Covers question superficially.

May not complete all tasks.

Covers entire question, but may be slightly imbalanced.

Covers all areas of question in approximate proportions to their importance.

Presentation

Inconsistent organization. Grammatical errors cloud argument to a major degree.

Uses clear language.

Well organized.

Contains few grammatical errors.

Uses clear, appropriate and precise language.

Cohesive organization.

Very few grammatical errors.

Comment

Comment

Comment

Comment




Assessment Instrument - Graphic Organizer- All Assigned Topics

Category

Below Target

At Target

Above Target

Arrangement of Concepts

Main concept not clearly identified; subconcepts don’t consistently branch from main idea.

Main concept easily identified; most subconcepts branch from main idea.

Main concept easily identified; subconcepts branch appropriately from main idea.

Links and Linking Lines

Linking lines not always pointing in correct direction; linking words don’t clarify relationships between concepts; hyperlinks don’t function or fail to enhance the topic.

Most linking lines connect properly; most linking words accurately describe the relationship between concepts; most hyperlinks effectively used.

Linking lines connect related terms/point in correct direction; linking words accurately describe relationship between concepts; hyperlinks effectively used.

Graphics

Graphics used inappropriately and excessively; graphics poorly selected and don’t enhance the topic; some graphics are blurry and ill-placed.

Graphics used appropriately most of the time; most graphics selected enhance the topic, are of good quality, and are situated in logical places on the page.

Graphics used appropriately; greatly enhance the topic and aid in comprehension; are clear, crisp and well situated on the page.

Content

Contains extraneous information; is not logically arranged; contains numerous spelling and grammatical errors.

Reflects most of the essential infor-mation; is generally logically arranged; concepts presented without too many excess words; only one misspelling or grammatical error.

Reflects essential information; is logically arranged; concepts succinctly presented; no misspellings or grammatical errors.

High quality detail presented.

Text

Font too small to read easily; more than four different fonts used; text amount is excessive for intended audience.

Most text is easy to read; uses no more than four different fonts; amount of text generally fits intended audience.

Easy to read/ appropriately sized; no more than three different fonts; amount of text is appropriate for intended audience; boldface used for emphasis. High quality text through-out document.

Design

Cluttered design; low in visual appeal; requires a lot of scrolling to view entire diagram; choice of colors lacks visual appeal and impedes comprehension.

Design is fairly clean, with a few exceptions; diagram has visual appeal; four or fewer symbol shapes; fits page well; uses color effectively most of time.

Clean design; high visual appeal; four or fewer symbol shapes; fits page without a lot of scrolling; color used effectively for emphasis.

Knowledge Gained

Student demonstrates a lack of knowledge about the content and the processes used to create the poster.

Student can accurately answer most questions related to content and the processes used to create the poster.

Student can accurately answer all questions related to content and the processes used to create the poster.

Comment

Comment

Comment

Comment
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