Bioheat applications in the european union: an analysis and perspective for 2010




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BIOHEAT APPLICATIONs IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: an analysis and perspective for 2010





B. KAVALOV and S. D. PETEVES

Petten, The Netherlands




EUR XXXXX EN


This document does not represent the point of view of the European Commission.

The interpretations and opinions contained in it are solely those of the authors.

Mission of the Institute for Energy


The Institute for Energy provides scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of community policies, related to energy.

Special emphasis is given to the security of energy supply and to sustainable and safe energy production.


European Commission

Directorate General Joint Research Centre (DG JRC)

Institute for Energy

Petten

The Netherlands


Contact:

B. Kavalov, phone: +31 224 56 54 78, e-mail: boyan.kavalov@jrc.nl

http://ie.jrc.cec.eu.int/


http://www.jrc.cec.eu.int/


Legal Notice

Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use, which might be made of the following information.


The use of trademarks in this publication does not constitute an endorsement by the European Commission.


The views expressed in this publication are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission.


A great deal of additional information of the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu.int/).


Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2004


ISBN


European Communities, 2004


Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.


Printed in The Netherlands, Institute for Energy – JRC IE, PR&Communication


Cover: The Tamsweg district heating plant in the Salzburg region of Austria; Source: European Commission, Directorate-General for Energy and Transport,

http://europa.eu.int/comm/energy/res/sectors/doc/bioenergy/combustion_cocombustion/024bm_333_95.pdf,

not for commercial use


PREFACE


The objective of the Sustainable Energy Technologies Reference and Information System (SETRIS) of Directorate-General Joint Research Centre – European Commission is to collect, harmonise and validate information on sustainable energy technologies and perform related techno-economic assessments to establish, in collaboration with all relevant national partners, scientific and technical reference information required for the debate on a sustainable energy strategy in an enlarged EU, and in the context of global sustainable development.


In the context of SETRIS, the creation of a Scientific Reference System on Renewable Energy Sources (SRS-RES) is been implemented. As a module of this SRS-RES, this study aims at performing a techno-economic analysis of various bioenergy applications for heat generation in the EU in the near- to medium-term, concentrating on the 2010 time horizon. This includes a critical review of a large number of literature sources on the subject, complemented by the author’s analysis. Thanks Marc Steen, David Baxter and Fred Starr (Joint Research Centre – Institute for Energy) for their contribution with comments, remarks and suggestions.


GUIDANCE FOR THE READER


In addition to the briefings in the “Executive Summary” and the “Conclusions” chapters, each analytical chapter contains a summary box at the end. A summary figure of the relative advantages and disadvantages of different fuel and technology options, considered from the point of view of (bio)heat generation, is also included before the chapter’s summary box. The bibliographic indexes of the data and information sources or of the sources, where more data and/or information can be found on a certain issue or subject are given in brackets [].


TABLE OF CONTENT


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1

1. BACKGROUND 4

2. BIOENERGY BASIC FACTS 9

3. BIOHEAT BASIC FACTS 13

4. BIOMASS FUELS FOR HEAT GENERATION 18

4.1. Woody biofuels 18

4.1.1. Whole trees 18

4.1.2. Firewood (fuel wood, wood logs) 20

4.1.3. Short rotation forestry 20

4.1.4. Residual wood 21

4.1.5. Wood chips 22

4.1.6. Wood powder, pellets and briquettes 25

4.2. Herbaceous biofuels 27

4.2.1. Herbaceous energy crops 28

4.2.2. Residual herbaceous biomass (straw) 28

4.2.3. Herbaceous pellets and briquettes 30

4.3. Other biomass fuels 30

4.4. Summary 30

5. BIOMASS COMBUSTION 32

5.1. General overview 32

5.2. Small-scale combustion 34

5.3. Large-scale combustion 37

5.3.1. Batch combustion 37

5.3.2. Grate combustion 38

5.3.3. Other combustion concepts 43

5.4. Summary 45

6. BIOMASS GASIFICATION 46

7. COMBINED COMBUSTION OF BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUELS 51

7.1. General description of combined combustion 51

7.2. Types of biomass co-firing with fossil fuels 52

7.2.1. Gasification and gas co-firing 52

7.2.2. Biomass-based combustion with fossil fuel super-heating complementation 52

7.2.3. Biomass-based combustion with fossil fuel compensating complementation 52

7.2.4. Fossil fuel-based combustion with biomass complementation 53

7.3. Summary 56

8. COMBINED HEAT AND POWER GENERATION FROM BIOMASS 58

9. SECURITY AND DIVERSITY OF ENERGY SUPPLY 63

10. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE 76

10.1. Energy efficiency and emissions of greenhouse gases 76

10.2. Local-polluting emissions 79

10.3. Sustainability and other environmental issues 83

10.4. Summary 84

11. COST ANALYSIS 85

12. MARKET ASPECTS 91

13. CONCLUSIONS 98

14. ANNEXES 100

15. BIBLIOGRAPHY 104

LIST OF FIGURES


Figure 1 4

Figure 2 4

Figure 3 5

Figure 4 5

Figure 5 6

Figure 6 7

Figure 7 7

Figure 8 9

Figure 9 10

Figure 10 10

Figure 11 11

Figure 12 11

Figure 13 12

Figure 14 13

Figure 15 14

Figure 16 15

Figure 17 15

Figure 18 16

Figure 19 18

Figure 20 20

Figure 21 21

Figure 22 22

Figure 23 23

Figure 24 25

Figure 25 25

Figure 26 26

Figure 27 28

Figure 28 29

Figure 29 31

Figure 30 32

Figure 31 33

Figure 32 35

Figure 33 36

Figure 34 38

Figure 35 40

Figure 36 41

Figure 37 43

Figure 38 44

Figure 39 45

Figure 40 48

Figure 41 49

Figure 42 50

Figure 43 50

Figure 44 53

Figure 45 57

Figure 46 57

Figure 47 59

Figure 48 59

Figure 49 60

Figure 50 62

Figure 51 63

Figure 52 64

Figure 53 64

Figure 54 66

Figure 55 66

Figure 56 67

Figure 57 67

Figure 58 68

Figure 59 69

Figure 60 70

Figure 61 70

Figure 62 71

Figure 63 71

Figure 64 72

Figure 65 73

Figure 66 73

Figure 67 74

Figure 68 75

Figure 69 77

Figure 70 78

Figure 71 79

Figure 72 84

Figure 73 87

Figure 74 88

Figure 75 89

Figure 76 90

Figure 77 90

Figure 78 91

Figure 79 93

Figure 80 95

Figure 81 97

Figure 82 100



LIST OF USED ABBREVIATIONS


CAP – Common Agricultural Policy (of the European Union)

CHP – combined heat and power (generation)

d – dry (basis)

EC – European Commission

EU – European Union, (European) Community

EU-15 – the member states of the EU until 30 April 2004

EU-25 – the member states of the EU by the end of 2004

EUR, € – Euro

g – gram

G – Giga

GCV – gross calorific value

GIEC – gross inland energy consumption

GHG – greenhouse gas(es)

k – thousand

kg – kilogram

km - kilometre

l – litre

J - Joule

m – metre, mili

m2 – square metre

m3 – cubic metre

M – million, Mega

LCA – life-cycle analysis

NCV – net calorific value

NMS-10 – the 10 new member states of the EU as from 01 May 2004

REP – renewable energy pathway

toe – tonne oil equivalent

USD, $ - United States Dollar

w – weight (basis)

W – Watt

Wh – Watt-hour

WTW- Well-To-Wheel


ENERGY CONVERSION FACTORS





GJ

Gcal

toe

MBtu

MWh

GJ

1.0000

0.2388

0.0239

0.9478

0.2778

Gcal

4.1868

1.0000

0.1000

3.9683

1.1630

Toe

41.8680

10.0000

1.0000

39.6832

11.6300

MBtu

1.0551

0.2520

0.0252

1.0000

0.2931

MWh

3.6

0.8598

0.0860

3.4121

1.0000

Source: Unit Converter, International Energy Agency (IEA) – Organisation for Economic Development and Co-operation (OECD), http://www.iea.org/dbtw-wpd/Textbase/stats/unit.asp


 – 10-6

m – 10-3

Kilo – 103

Mega – 106

Giga – 109

Tera – 1012

Peta – 1015


AVERAGE ENERGY CONTENT OF SELECTED FUELS, USED IN EU STATISTICS


Net Calorific Value

Kilograms oil equivalent (kgoe)

Hard coal

0.411-0.733

Hard coke

0.681

Brown coal

0.134-0.251

Black lignite

0.251-0.502

Peat

0.186-0.330

Brown coal briquettes

0.478

Light fuel oil

1.010

Heavy fuel oil

0.955

Petroleum coke

0.750

Gross Calorific Value

Kilograms oil equivalent (kgoe)

Natural gas

0.0215

Biomass

0.024

Electricity

0.086

Source: European Commission, Statistical Office of the European Communities (EUROSTAT), http://europa.eu.int/comm/eurostat/
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