REFERENCES
 1.  Colin, D.J. and Dallas, N.M., “Ferrocement Material Behavior in Flexure”, Journal of the Structure Division, Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineering, Vol. 100, No. ST10, October 1974, pp. 20532069.  2.  Desayi, P. and Joshi, A.D., “Ferrocement Load–Bearing Wall Elements”, Journal of the Structural Division, Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineering, Vol. 102, No. ST9, September 1976, pp. 19031916. 
 Swamy، R.N.،” خرسانة مسلحة جديدة“، ترجمة الآوسي، محمد علي والعلي، باسل طه، رقم الايداع في المكتبة الوطنية ببغداد 559 لسنة 1989.  3.  4.  Austriaco, N.C., Lee, S.L and Pama, R.P., “Inelastic Behavior of Ferrocement Slabs in Bending”, Magazine Concrete Research, Vol. 27, No.93, December 1975, pp. 193209.  5.  Karasudhi, P., Mathew, A.G. and Nimityongskul, P., “Fatigue of Ferrocement in Flexure”, Journal of Ferrocement, Vol. 7, No. 2, October 1977, pp. 8095.  6.  Paramasivam, P. and SriRavindrarajah, R., “Effect of Arrangements of Reinforcement on Mechanical Properties of Ferrocement”, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 85, No.51, January 1988, pp. 311.  7.  AlSulaimani, G.J., Ahmad, S.F. and Basunbul, I.A., “Study of the Flexural Strength of Ferrocement Flanged Beams”, The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 1, January 1989, pp. 3346.  8.  AlSalihi, M.Z., “StressStrain Curve in Uniaxial Tension of Ferrocement Slabs”, Eng. and Technology, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1999, pp. 1825.  9.  Ahmed, S.F. and Nimityonskul, P., “Experimental Studies on Simply Supported Ferrocement Slabs under Punching Shear Load”, The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Vol. 25, No. 1B, April 2000, pp. 313.  10.  Paramasivam, P. and Tan, K.H., “Punching Shear Strength of Ferrocement Slabs”, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 90, No. 3, 1993, pp. 294301.
 11.  Mansur, M.A., Ahmad, I. and Paramasivam, P., “Punching Shear Strength of Simply Supported Ferrocement Slabs”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, November – December 2001, pp. 418426.  12.  Das Gupta, N.C., Paramasivam, P. and Lee, S.L., “A Ferrocement Hyperbolic Paraboloid Shell”, Journal of Ferrocement, Vol. 10, No. 4, October 1980, pp. 273282.
 13.  Elongovan, S. and Santha Kumar, A.R., “Behavior of Room Size Ferrocement Funicular Shell”, Journal of Ferrocement, Vol. 14, No. 4, October, 1984, pp. 323328.
 14.  Kalita, U.C., Nambiar, M.K.C., Borthakur, B.C. and Baruah, P., “Ferrocement Roof for Low – Cost Housing”, Indian Concrete Journal, July 1986, pp. 177181.  15.  AlIhmedawi, A.N., “Thin Ferrocement Shell Structures”, M. Sc. Thesis, University of Technology, Building and Construction Department, Baghdad – Iraq, September 1994.  16.  Adli, A.M., “Ferrocement Segmented Shell Structures”, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Technology, Building and construction Department, Baghdad, Iraq, April 1996.  17.  Hedgren, A.W. and Billngton, D.P., “ Mortar Model Test on A Cylindrical Shell of Varying Curvature and Thickness ”, ACI Journal, No. 467, February 1967, pp. 7383.
 18.  Logan, D. and Shah, S.P., “Moment Capacity and Cracking Behavior of Ferrocement in Flexure”, ACI Journal, No. 7073, December 1973, pp. 799804.
 19.  Pakotiprapha, B., Pama, R.P. and Lee, S.L., “Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortar with Randomly Oriented Short Steel Wires”, Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 26, No. 86, March 1974, pp.315.  20.  Hassan, A.H., “Structural Behavior of Thin Ferrocmenet Folded Plate Roof Structures”, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Technology, Building and Construction Department, BaghdadIraq, October 1989.
 21.  ACI Committee 31802, “ Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete”, ACI, Detroit, 2002.
 22.  Yen, T. and Su, C.F. “Influence of Skeletal Steel on the Flexural Behavior of Ferrocement”, Journal of Ferrocement, Vol. 10, No. 3, July 1980, pp. 117188.
 23.  Naaman, A.E. and Homrich, J.R., “Flexural Design of Ferrocement Computerized Evaluation and Design Aids”, Journal of Ferro cement, Vol. 16, No. 2, April 1986, pp. 101116.
 24.  Mansur, M. A. and Paramasivam, P., “Cracking Behavior and Ultimate Strength of Ferrocement in Flexure”, Journal of Ferrocement, Vol. 16, No. 4, October 1986, pp. 405415.
 25.  Khalaf, S.H., “ Structural Behavior of Long  Span Ferrocment Roofs”, M. Sc. Thesis, University of Technology, Building and Construction Department, BaghdadIraq, February 1998.
 26.  Ahmed, A.M., “Thin Ferrocement Dome Structures”, M. Sc. Thesis, University of Technology, Building and Construction Department, BaghdadIraq, March 1999.
 27.  Arif, M., Pankaj and Kaushik, S.K, “Mechanical Behavior of Ferrocement Composites: Numerical Simulation”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 14, N0. 2, April 1,2002, pp. 156163.
 28.  Ahmad, S., Iron, B.M. and Zienkiewicz, O.C., “Analysis of Thick and Thin Shell Structures by Curved Finite Elements”, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 2, 1970, pp. 419451.
 29.  Hinton, E. and Owen, D. R. J., “ Finite Element Software for Pates and Shells” First Edition 1984, Pineridge Press Limited, U.K.
 30.  Zienkiewicz, O.C. and Taylor, R. L., “The Finite Element Method”, Fifth Edition 2000, Published by Butterworth – Heinemann, Vol. 2.
 31.  Zienkiewicz, O.C., Taylor, R. L. and Too, J.M., “Reduced Integration Technique in General Analysis of Plates and Shells”, Int. Jour. Num. Meth. Engng., Vol. 3, No. 2, 1971, pp. 275 – 290.
 32.  Fezans, G. and Verchary, G., “ Some Results on the Behavior of Design Shell Element”, Nuclear Engng and Degenerated, Vol. 70, No. 1, 1982, pp. 27 – 35.
 33.  AbdelRahman, H. H. and Hinton, E., “Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Stiffened and Cellular Slabs”, J. of Computers and Structures, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1986, pp. 333350.
 34.  Figueiras, J.A., “Practical Approach for Modeling the Nonlinear Response of RC. Shells ”, In Computational Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Edited by E. Hinton and R. Owen, Pinerdige Press, Swansea, 1986.  35.  Fariborz, B., “Layering of RC. Membrane and Plate Elements in Nonlinear Analysis”, J. of Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 114, No. 11, 1988, pp. 24742492.
 36.  Mahmmod, M.N., “Investigation of Post Cracking Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Girder Bridge”, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Roorkee, India, 1994.
 37.  Arif, M., “Simulation of the Mechanical Properties of Ferrocement Plates”, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, India, 1997.
 38.  Nicholas, J.C. and Floyd, O.S., “Limiting Tensile Strain Criterion for Failure of Concrete”, ACI Journal, No. 73–15, March 1976, pp. 160 – 165.
 39.  Rusch, H., “Physical Problems in the Testing of Concrete”, Library Translation No. 86, Cement and Concrete Association, 1959, pp. 1 21.  40.  Nagai, K., “Mesoscopic Simulation of Failure of Mortar and Concrete by 2D RBSM”, Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, Vol. 2, No. 3, October 2004, pp. 359 – 374.
 41.  Sundara, K.T., Chandrashekhara, K. and Krishnaswamy, K.T., “Strength of Concrete under Biaxial Compression”, ACI Journal, Vol. 62, No. 2, February 1965, pp. 239 – 249.  42.  Vile, G.W.D., “The Strength of Concrete under Short – Term Static Biaxial Stress”, Proceedings, International Conference on the Structure of Concrete, Cement and Concrete Association, London, 1968, pp. 275  288.
 43.  Kupfer, H., Hilsdorf, H.K. and Rusch, H., “Behavior of Concrete under Biaxial Stresses”, ACI Journal, No. 66 – 52, August 1969, pp. 656 – 665.  44.  Liu, T.C.Y., Nilson, A.H. and Slate, F.O., “Stress – Strain Response and Fracture of Concrete in Uniaxial and Biaxial Compression”, ACI Journal, No. 69 – 31 May 1972, pp. 291 – 295.  45.  Liu, T.C.Y. and Nilson, A.H., “Biaxial Stress – Strain Relations for Concrete”, Journal of the Structural Division, Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol.98, No.ST5, May 1972, pp. 1025 –1034.
 46.  Pandit, G.S. and Tanwani, N., “Behavior of Concrete in Biaxial Compression”, Indian Concrete Journal, February 1975, pp.39 – 45.
 47.  Darwin, D., Pecknold, D.A., “Nonlinear Biaxial StressStrain Law for Concrete”, Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, Proceedings of the American Society of the Civil Engineers, Vol. 103, No. EM2, April 1977, pp. 229241.
 48.  Tasuji, M.E., Slate, F.O. and Nilson, A.H., “Stress–Strain Response and Fracture of Concrete in Biaxial Loading”, ACI Journal, No. 75 – 33, July 1978, pp. 306 – 311.
 49.  Carino, N.J. and Lew, H.S., “ReExamination of the Relation Between Splitting Tensile and Compressive Strength of Normal Weight Concrete”, ACI Journal, No.7923, June 1982, pp.214 218.  50.  Palaniswamy, R. and Surendra, P.S., “Fracture and Stress – Stain Relationship of Concrete under Triaxial Compression”, Journal of the Structural Division, Proceeding of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 100, No. ST5, May 1974, pp. 901 – 913.  51.  Buyukozturk, O., “Micro – Cracking of Concrete / Behavior under Multiaxial Loading”, 1.054/1.541 Mechanics and Design of Concrete Structures, Spring 2004.
 52.  Bellamy, C.J., “Strength of Concrete under Combined Stresses”, ACI Journal, Proceedings, Vol. 58, No. 4, Oct. 1961, pp. 367 – 382.
 53.  Andenaes, E., Gerstle, K. and Ko, H.Y., “Response of Mortar and Concrete to Biaxial Compression”, Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 103, No. EM4, August 1977, pp. 515 – 525.  54.  Chen, W.F., “Plasticity in Reinforced Concrete”, Mc Graw – Hill, New – York, 1982.
 55.  Cervera, M. and Hinton, E., “Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Plates and Shell Using Three Dimensional Model”, Computational Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures, (Edited by Hinton, E., and Owen, D.R.J.), Pineridge Press Limited Swansea, 1986, pp. 327  350.
 56.  Kupfer, H.B. and Gerstle, K.H., “ Behavior of Concrete under Biaxial Stresses”, ASCE, Proc. Paper 917, Aug. 1973, pp. 852 – 866.
 57.  Mahmmod, M.N., “NonLinear Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beam”, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Mosul, Iraq, January 1986.
 58.  Kwak, H.G. and Filippou, F.C., “Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures under Monotonic Loads”, Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Materials, Department of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Report No. UCB/SEMM – 90/14, November 1990.  59.  Hu, H.T. and Schnobrich, W.C., “Nonlinear Analysis of Plane Stress State Reinforced Concrete under Short Term Monotonic Loading”, Research Report, University of Illinois, April 1988.
 60.  Owen, D.R.J. and Hinton, E., “Finite Element in Plasticity: Theory and Practice”, Pineridge Press Limited, Swansea, U.K., 1980.
 61.  Zienkiewicz, O.C., Valliappan, S. and King, I.P., “ElastoPlastic Solution of Engineering Problems, Initial Stress, Finite Element Approach”, International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 1, 1969, pp. 75100.  62.  Task Committee, “Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete”, State  of  the  Art Report, Published By ASCE, 1982.  63.  Mikkola, M.J. and Schnobrich, W.C., “Material Behavior Characteristics for Reinforced Concrete Shells Stressed Beyond the Elastic Range”, Civil Engineering Studies, Structural Research Series No. 367, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Illinois, August 1970.  64.  Saenz, L.P., Discussion of “Equation for the Stress Strain Curve of Concrete”, By Desayi, P. and Krishnan, S., ACI Journal, Proceedings, Vol. 61, No. 9, September 1964, pp. 1229 – 1235.
 65.  Chen, A.C.T. and Chen, W.F., “Constitutive Relations for Concrete”, Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division ASCE, Vol. 101, No. EM4, August 1975, pp. 465 – 481.  66.  Buyukozturk, O., “Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structure”, Computer and Structures, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1977, pp. 149 – 156.
 67.  Darwin, D. and Pecknold, D.A., “Inelastic Model for Cyclic Biaxial Loading for Reinforced Concrete”, Civil Engineering Studies, Structural Research Series, No.409, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Illinois, July 1974.
 68.  Elwi, A.A. and Murray D.W., “A 3D Hypoelastic Concrete Constitutive Relationship”, Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE, Vol. 105, No. EM4, August 1979, pp. 623641.  69.  Chen, E.Y.T., “Numerical Simulation of Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Multiaxial Stress Conditions”, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Illinois, 1981.  70.  Nyssen, C., “An Efficient and Accurate Iterative Method, Allowing Large Incremental Steps, to Solve ElastoPlastic Problems”, International Journal, Computers and Structures, Vol. 13, 1981, pp. 6371.
 71.  Ngo, D. and Scordelis, A.C., “Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams”, ACI Journal, Proceeding, Vol. 6414, No. 3, March 1967, pp. 152163.
 72.  Rashid, Y.R., “Ultimate Strength of Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessel”, Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 7, No. 4, April 1968, pp. 334344.
 73.  Cope, R.J., Roa, P.V., Clark, L.A. and Norris, P., “Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Behavior for Finite Element Analysis of Bridge Decks”, in Proceeding of International Conference On Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Problems, (Edited by Tayler, C., et al.), Pineridge Press, Swansea, U.K., 1980, pp. 457470.
 74.  Vebo, A. and Ghali, A., “Moment–Curvature Relatio of Reinforced Concrete Slabs”, Journal of Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 103, No. ST3, 1977, pp. 515 – 531.
 75.  Bazant, Z.P. and Cedolin, L., “Fracture Mechanics of Reinforced Concrete”, Journal of the Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, Vol. 106, No. EM6, 1980, pp. 1287 – 1306.
 76.  Welch, G.B. and Hisman, B., “Fracture Toughness Measurements of Concrete”, Report No. R42 University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 1969.
 77.  Bedard, C. and Kotsovos, M. D., “Fracture Processes of Concrete for NLFEA Methods”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 112, No. 3, 1986, pp. 573 – 587.
 78.  Hinton, E. “Numerical Methods and Software for Dynamic Analysis of Plates and Shells”, University College of Swansea, Pineridge Press, U.K., 1988.
 79.  Loo, Y. and Guan, H., “Cracking and Punching Shear Failure Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Flat Plates”, J. of Structural Engineering, Vol. 123, No. 10, Oct. 1997 pp. 1321 – 1330.  80.  Sathurappan, G., Rajagopalan, N., and Krishnamoorthy, C.S., “Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Slabs with Rienforcement (Inclusive of Prestressing Steel) Modeled as Discrete Integral Components”, J. of Computers and Structures, Vol. 44, No. 3, 1992, pp. 575 – 584.
 81.  Gilbert, R.I. and Warner, R. F., “Tension Stiffening in Reinforced Concrete Slabs”, ASCE J. of the Structural Division, Vol. 104, No. ST12, Dec. 1978, pp. 1885 – 1900.  82.  Gustafsson, P.J. and Hillerbog, A., “Sensitivity in Shear Strength of Longtiudinally Reinforced Concrete Beams to Fracture Energy of Concrete”, ACI Structural Journal, Technical Paper, May 1988, pp. 286294.
 83.  Chung, W. and Ahmad, S.H., “ Analytical Model For Shear Critical Reinforced – Concrete Members ”, Journal of the structural Engineering, June 1995, pp. 1023 – 1029.
 84.  Taylor, H.P.J. “The Fundamental Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams in Bending and Shear ”, Shear in Reinforced Concrete, Publication SP 421, ACI 1974, pp. 4377.  85.  Paulay, T. and Loeber, P.J., “Shear Transfer by Aggregate Interlock”, Shear in Reinforced Concrete, Special Publication SP 421, ACI, 1974, pp. 115.
 86.  Anson, M. and Newman, K., “ The Effect of Mix Proportions and Method of Testing on Poisson's Ratio for Mortars and Concretes, Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 18, No. 56, September 1966, pp. 115–124.

