Treatise on geophysics chapter 6: slip inversion s. Ide




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6.6 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

This section reviews the history, formulation, application, and extension of slip inversion using seismic waveform and/or geodetic data. We introduce some popular forms of slip inversion, dividing the problem into basic elements of data, model parameters, and synthetic data. The history of slip inversion started from the early 1980s, after the pioneering study of Trifunac (1974). Although the speed of development is not rapid since the establishment of the basic forms at around the 1990, there are some recent technical improvements, such as application of various nonlinear minimization methods, objective weighting for regularization constraints, and addition of new kinds of data. Slip inversion in the frequency domain is still being developed (Miyake et al. 2006). Except for these improvements, slip inversion is a mature analysis method of seismic sources. Some computer programs are distributed via the Internet (e.g., Kikuchi and Kanamori 2004). Determination of slip model for relatively large earthquakes using far-field body waves and distributed programs is a kind of routine work or a good exercise for students. Routine reports of such slip models are usually published for significant earthquakes in electronic formats within one or a few days.

It is often overlooked that any slip models have only limited reliability. Usually only gross features such as the location and timing of large slip, and average direction and velocity of rupture propagation are well resolved. Even such features were not identified for some events. An example is the 1999 İzmit earthquake, for which the strong-motion records are not sufficient and their timing information was not correct (Beresnev 2003; Ide et al. 2005). Each paper presenting slip model does not always mention the assumptions and limits of the inversion method, because these problems have been usually investigated in the previous papers. This ambiguity may cause artifacts when we evaluate characteristics and scaling of slip models or derive physical implications from slip models. There is no established way to qualitatively evaluate the reliability of slip models and we have to assess the limitation of models case by case.

The increasing power of computers has contributed to the improvement of slip inversion, increasing the number of data and model parameters. However, the number of model parameters is not increasing during this decade. Rather, computer power is recently used to solve nonlinear problems with a large number of unknown parameters using Monte Carlo like iterative methods. There are large rooms to improve optimization methods for various problems of slip inversion. The degree of freedom is high and the review of this field in this chapter (section 6.3.1) is not sufficient. Another field that requires powerful computer is calculation of Green’s function for heterogeneous earth structure. One landmark is given by Tsuboi et al. (2003) in the forward simulation of the Denali fault earthquake using Earth Simulator. Such calculation will increase resolution of slip inversion not only for global problem, but also for regional earthquakes.

Needless to say, the quality of slip inversion fully depends on the data. Geodetic data will be important for slip inversion to fix the lower frequency image of the source. InSAR provides unprecedented spatial resolution and the frequency band of GPS partly overlaps with that of broadband seismometers. Nevertheless, seismic data, especially near-field data is essential to resolve temporal change in detail. Although the inland earthquakes can be resolved quite well, they are just a small fraction of all earthquakes in the world. Most events occur beneath the ocean, where little data are available for slip inversion. The first large subduction earthquake whose near-field strong-motion seismograms were recorded is the 2003 Tokachi-Oki, Japan, earthquake (Mw 8.3, Hirata et al. 2003). The records of cabled ocean bottom stations are quite expensive, but to increase such instruments is an important task for the study of seismic source.

There have been many slip models for more than 100 earthquakes, which tell us the image of fault slip and provide information about the physics of earthquake behind them. However, there are only a small number of earthquakes whose rupture processes were resolved well enough for the discussion of fault dynamics. The Chi-Chi, Landers, Northridge, Kobe, Loma Prieta, Imperial Valley, and Tottori (Table 6.1) are those events. We need more case studies together with quality controls of the models. It is also important to develop analysis methods that enable broadband slip inversion that can use higher-frequency waves in complex structure.


Acknowledgements.

This manuscript was improved by the comments from an anonymous reviewer and Prof. H. Kanamori. Prof. M. Matsu’ura gave me quite useful advises about inversion theory. I thank Prof. M. Hashimoto for the fault data of Fig. 6.1, and Dr. H. Aochi for useful suggestions. The fault models compiled by Drs. M. Mai and D. Wald were quite helpful for comparison between models. The catalog of slip models for Japanese earthquakes compiled by Profs. R. Sato and K. Koketsu was also useful. Some figures are prepared using Generic Mapping Tool (Wessel and Smith 1991). This work is partly supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research and DaiDaiToku Project, Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.


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Suggested Cross-References

Volume 1 – seismology & the Structure of the Earth

Theory & Observation- Body Waves (6.2.4)

Theory & Observation- Forward Modeling (6.2.4)

Volume 3 – Geodesy GPS and Space Based Geodetic Methods (6.2.2)

Interferometric SAR (6.2.2)

Volume 4 – Earthquake Seismology Seismic Source Theory (6.1, 6.2.1, 6.2.4)

Episodic Plate Motion (6.2.2)

Global Seismology (6.2.2, 6.2.4)

Tsunami (6.2.2)

Strong-Motion Seismology (6.1, 6.2.2, 6.2.4, 6.5)

Complexity and Earthquakes (6.5?)


1   2   3   4   5   6

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