Introduction and Chapter 1




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НазваниеIntroduction and Chapter 1
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Terms

Introduction and Chapter 1

Latin American History 109


Latin America

three river systems

Amazon

Orinoco

Río de la Plata

climate

high mountains

tropical jungles

deserts

temperate coastal plains

temperate highlands

Caribbean

Roman Catholicism

natural resources

gold/silver

origins of indigenous peoples

one place origin theory

Beringia

Topper Site

multiple origins theory

Pleistocene Epoch

hunter-gatherer

agriculturalists

plant domestication

pumpkins

beans

manioc

potato

maize

slash-and-burn farming

three levels of social organization

tribe

chiefdom

state (civilization)

Circum-Caribbean

Nuclear America

Ancient America stages of development

archaic

formative

classic

post-classic

Time of Troubles

Olmecs

Mesoamerica

three significant ancient civilizations

Maya

Aztec

Inca

Teotihuacán

Itzam Na

Toltecs

Tula

Tenochititlán

Mexico City

Quetzalcóatl

Moctezuma (Montezuma)

Viracocha and Pachayachachic

Quechua



Terms

Chapter 2

Latin American History 109


Iberia/Iberian Peninsula

Latin

Hispania

Visigoths

Germanic tribes

Roman Catholicism

Christian influence

Muslim

Moors

Umayyad Dynasty

Reconquest

Castile

Aragón

Ferdinand and Isabella

patronato real

reforms of the Spanish crown

challenged supremacy of the Church

economic reform

expansive foreign policy

Charles V

Philip II

Spain

Portugal

hidalgos

Don Quijote by Miguel de Cervantes

El Greco


Terms

Chapter 3

Latin American History 109


Portugal and Spain

Prince Henry

Bartholomeu Dias

Vasco da Gama

Pedro Álvares Cabral

adelantados

Christopher Columbus

Pinta, Santa Maria, Niña

Bahamas/San Salvador

tobacco

Hispaniola

Indies

Indians

Pope Alexander VI

Treaty of Tordesillas

Brazil

Vasco Núñez de Balboa

Ferdinand Magellan

Tenochtitlán

Moctezuma

Hernando Cortés

Malinche

Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz

Tlaloc, Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcóatl

Cuauhtémoc

Francisco de Montejo

Kingdom of New Spain

encomienda

Peru

Francisco Pizarro

Atahualpa

factors enabling Spanish conquest

fleeing of natives

weak military strategy of natives

docile native population

superior Spanish firepower

Spanish horses

European disease

proficient Spanish military

internal strife of indigenous empires

North America

Ponce de León


La Florida

Hernando de Soto

Francisco Vásquez de Coronado

precious metals/spices

conquistadors

Lope de Aguirre



Terms

Chapter 4

Latin American History 109


indígenas

encomienda

tribute and labor

mestizo

mulatto

repartimiento

yanaconas

cacao, sugar, tobacco,

cotton, indigo

haciendas

rancheros

ranchos

cochineal

Potosí

silver

mercury

England

John Hawkins

Francis Drake

Treaty of Madrid

Treaty of Ryswick

type of colonial economy

capitalist or feudal

Terms

Chapter 5

Latin American History 109


Laws of the Indies

viceroys

viceroyalties

New Spain

Peru

presidencias

audiencias

Francisco de Toledo

Luis de Velasco

cabildos (ayuntamiento)

corregidores de indios

caciques

oidores

creoles

perros

Society of Jesus

Jesuits

education

University of Lima

University of Mexico City

Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz

Inquisition

heresy

limpieze de sangre

castas

peninsulars

gente sin razón

African slaves.

zambos

Middle Passage

maroons

miscegenation

manumission laws

indigenous communities

colonial cities

haciendas

barrios

hacendado

women in Spanish America


Terms

Chapter 6

Latin American History 109


Brazil

Treaty of Tordesillas

Pedro Alvares Cabral

Portugal

Brazilwood

degredados

King Jõao III

São Vicente

Santos

captaincy system

Duarte Coelho

sugar

tobacco

cotton

fazenda

monoculture

slave culture

fazendeiro

Casa Grande

indigenous peoples

Jesuits

bandeirantes

aldeias

marquis de Pombal

French and Dutch encroachment

Rio de Janeiro

Antarctic France

Mem de São

West India Company

first/second battles of Guararapes

West Indies

Barbados

plantations/sugar/rum refineries

gold mines

Minas Gerais

São Paulo and the Mines of Gold

diamond mines

Diamantina

Pernambuco

Bahia

cattle industry

vaqueiros

gauchos

sertão

Rio Grande do Sul

ministry of Marinha e Ultramar

relaçães

Senado da Câmara

comarca

ouvidor

capitães mores

corruption

church and clergy

white-black

white-native

black-native

quilomos

Palmares

obrigardos

agregados

compadrio

reinóis

mazombos

War of the Mascates

Olinda

Recife

José da Silva Xavier

Tiradentes

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